The role of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan is to provide a method of national goals and priorities establishment. It provides assessed formats to be followed in funds allocation in order to eradicate or minimize vulnerabilities, threats or other incidents effectively. In addition, the plan provides initiatives for implementation of essential programs while addressing human considerations. It also stipulates a clear framework, roles, and responsibilities of the Department of Homeland and Security. With this regard, all infrastructural areas largely rely on this collaborative plan. Of utmost significance is the Health care and Public Health infrastructure, which will be the area of concern. This infrastructural area could arouse great public interest in the event of a hazard as it affects every individual.
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The goals and objectives of NIPP are clearly defined in the key roles it plays. Some of the vital goals include setting of security goals, identification of assets, systems, functions and networks, risk assessment and setting priorities based on risks. The plan also carries out implementation of protective programs aimed at managing risk, in addition of evaluating the effectiveness of the national protection program. In risk assessment, the plan determines potential threats or attacks and evaluates possible consequences. The plan’s responsibility in asset identification is crucial as it enables acquisition of knowledge useful in allocation of funds.
Risks that are complex in nature due to evolution in technological advances could be a challenge to the key infrastructural areas. According to Strategic Risk Assessment, threats and hazards are categorized as either adversarial, technological accidental threats or natural. Such risks include acts such as terrorism, cyber-attacks or extreme weather conditions that have negative impacts on security and safety of people.
The effort by the national government to enhance resilience and security on public health depends on the private sector and public sector, operators and owners to make informed decisions on resource allocation with respect to risk. National and local resilience lies on establishing and withholding a sustainable trusted relationship between the private and the public sector. Individuals are the risk manager in their respective organizations. The partnerships help in understanding of the vulnerabilities and threats. They help in understanding how to manage them through sharing the sharing of indicators, practices and coordination of policies, response and recovery activities (NIPP, 2013.p15)
Partners manage the risks with regard to different commitments to the society. They lay their emphasis on the welfare of the customers as well as structures of the corporate governance. Tolerance of risk varies with organizations and sectors depending on resources business plans regulatory environment and the operating structure. To an extent, they differ between the government and the private sector with respect to the underlying constraints. Different entities may place varying priorities with regard to investment on security and differing judgments as to what extent the tolerance of risk may be. Private sector may increase investments to cope with risk tolerance.
The government must provide for national security and public safety and operates with a different set of limits in doing so (NIPP, 2013. p15 ) To come up with a suitable value proposition between the partners, there is a need to understand the different perspectives; and their effects on joint priorities that may have been set. Under these parameters, public health resilience and security will rely on application of risk management activities in both government and industry with regard to incentives and available resources to sustain and guide the effort.
Health as a critical sector with biological attack as a hazard
Among the critical structures from the Homeland Security we will mainly focus on the Health sector. A biological terrorism attack may affect the public health sector of an economy. A biological terrorism attack arouses where a terrorist may release a biological agent against an outdoor or indoor water target that is directed towards people within the US (SNRA, 2011 8)
Steps of a risk Management framework
Setting goals and objectives
In setting goals you have to elaborate the expected outcomes, endpoints conditions and the anticipated performance that will enhance an efficient protection posture. The national goals are supported by objectives and priorities developed at the sector level[footnoteRef:2] (NIPP, 2013 P). The goals that you come up with should be in line with those at the national level. For the case of a biological attack the nation of a state must set goals so as prevent the risk. Some of the goals may include ensuring that the public have got maximum awareness about the effects of such an attack. The preferences must be directed towards the subject if there exist many chances of such an occurrence. [2: NIPP,2013 Security and Resellience, Homeland Security]
Identify the Infrastructure
For an efficient risk management, partners have to identify systems, assets, functions and networks. This risk management aspect should also determine the communication technologies that ease the provision of crucial services. The knowledge of the infrastructure will help trigger a quick reaction to a threat on the public health. There is therefore a need to be well equipped and aware of the changing technology.
Access and analyze the risks
Assessment of the risk can be done with respect to three terms which include; threat, vulnerability and consequence. By threat we can refer to potential harm, vulnerability may refer to susceptibility, while consequence may refer to an effect. Risk assessments by many partners guide them in decision making. Risk assessment also allows community leaders coordinate resource allocation and planning. For the case of the public sector the partners need to have timely and accurate information regarding the threat. The government will help in identifying the possibility of an attack and also avail services. Assessing the vulnerabilities of infrastructure is an important step in developing security solution as well as in managing critical infrastructure risk (NPPD, 2002. P1).