Note: Detailed Footnotes and Endnotes are needed only for sources cited for the first time. When citing the same work more than once, it is no longer fashionable to use ibid. or op. cit.; the current trend is to use the short title or the author’s last name instead. Indent the first line of a Footnote or Endnote entry. Second and subsequent lines are not indented. Double space between lines. Treat each entry as one statement or sentence. Put a period at the end of each entry. For further details and more samples, see How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes, Footnotes – Sample Page, and Endnotes – Sample Page.
- 1. Book with one author or editor
- 2. Book with two authors or editors
- 3. Book with three or more authors or editors
- 4. Book with no author or editor stated
- 5. Book that has been translated
- 6. Article in a collection by several authors, with one or more editors
- 7. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated
- 8. Article from an encyclopedia with one author
- 9. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated
- 10. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors
- 11. Pamphlet or brochure with no author stated
- 12. Book, movie, film, product, or software review
- 13. Government document
- 14. Interview
- 15. Film or video recording
- 16. Audio recording
- 17. Televisioin or radio
- 18. Computer software or CD-ROM
- 19. Internet
- 20. Reference to Shakespeare
- 21. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts
- 22. Citations for a single work throughout essay
- 23. Sources used more than once
For an excellent source on writing footnotes and endnotes using MLA style, please go to the official MLA handbook:
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York, MLA, 2003.
1. Book with one author or editor:
1 Frank Feather, Canada's Best Careers Guide 2000 (Toronto: Warwick, 2000) 152-3. 1 Jerry White, ed. Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life (Toronto: Warwick, 1998) 7-8.
2. Book with two authors or editors:
2 R.D. Hogg and Michael G. Mallin, Preparing Your Income
Tax Returns: 2001 Edition for 2000 Returns (Toronto: CCH Canadian, 2001) 969:519. 2 Andrew Cohen and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau's Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau (Toronto: Random, 1998) 391.
3. Book with three or more authors or editors:
3 Jack Canfield, et al., Chicken Soup for the Kid's Soul: 101 Stories of Courage, Hope and Laughter (Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 1998) 68. 3 Mans O. Larsson, et al., eds. Let's Go: Germany 1998 (New York: St. Martin's, 1998) 96-98.
4. Book with no author or editor stated:
4 The 1990 Charlton Coin Guide, 29th ed. (Toronto: Charlton, 1989) 39.
4 Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step, (Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001) 235.
5. Book that has been translated:
5 Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, trans. M. Moyaart-Doubleday (Toronto: Bantam, 1993) 95.
6. Article in a collection by several authors, with one or more editors:
6 Carmen DaSilva, "Life Insurance as a Tool for Estate Planning," Death and Taxes: Beating One of the Two Certainties in Life, ed. Jerry White (Toronto: Warwick, 1998) 57-71.
6 Maryann G. Valiulis, "Power, Gender and Identity in the Irish Free State," Irish Women's Voices Past and Present, ed. Joan Hoff and Moureen Coulter (Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1995) 118.
7. Article from an encyclopedia with no author stated:
7 "Malcolm X," Encyclopedia of Social Issues, 1997 ed.
8. Article from an encyclopedia with one author:
8 Lawrence A. Presley, "DNA Fingerprinting," World Book Encyclopedia, 2000 ed.
9. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with no author stated:
9 "Bombardier Wins Order in Israel," Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B12.
9 "Lighting Up the World: A Canadian's Obsession Has
Helped Thousands," Maclean's 4 Nov. 2002: 42-43.
10. Article from a magazine, journal, or newspaper with one or more authors:
10 Jonathan Alter and Geoffrey Gagnon, "The Future of New York," Newsweek 9 Sept. 2002: 50+.
10 Michael Friscolanti, "Convicts 'Morally' Fit to Vote: Supreme Court Ruling," National Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: A4.
10 Rita Daly, "Bird Flu Targeting the Young," Toronto Star
11 Mar. 2006: A1+.
10 Tom Fennell, "From Misfit to Murderer," Maclean's 4 Nov. 2002: 32-34.
11. Pamphlet, with no author stated:
11 2001 Chevy Tracker: Chevy Trucks (General Motors of Canada, 2000).
11 Fosamax (Kirkland, PQ: Merck Frosst Canada, 2002).
12. Book, movie, film, product or software review:
12 Henry Gordon, rev. of China! The Grand Tour, CD-ROM, Hopkins Technology, We Compute Feb. 1998: 15.
12 Katrina Onstad, "Not Too Naughty, Not Too Nice," rev. of The Santa Clause 2, dir. Michael Lembeck, National Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM5.
13. Government document:
13 Canada, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan (Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000) 12-13.
13 United States, National Council on Disability, Carrying on the Good Fight - Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 - Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures (Washington: GPO, 2000) 6.
15. Film or video recording:
15 The Pacifier, dir. Adam Shankman, perf. Vin Diesel, DVD,
15 A Simple wish, dir. Michael Ritchie, writ. Jeff Rothberg,
perf. Martin Short and Mara Wilson, VHS, Universal, 1997.
17. Television or radio:
17 Larry King Live, CNN, Nassau, Bahamas, 7 Mar. 2002.
17 Abbey Lincoln Sings Her Career, WBGO, Newark, NJ, 4 Mar. 2002.
18. Computer software or CD-ROM:
18 National Parks: The Multimedia Family Guide, CD-ROM, Woodland Hills, CA: Cambrix, 1995.
18 Norton AntiVirus, CD-ROM, Symantec, 2003. 18 QuickTax: Tax Year 2002, CD-ROM, Intuit Canada, 2003.
Note: First date = Web page creation or modification date. Second date = the date you accessed the Web page. If the Web page does not have a modification or creation date, leave it out, but always indicate your access date just before the URL.
19 Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs, "Aboriginal Peoples
Survey: From APS I to APS II." Facts from Stats, Corporate Information Management Directorate, Issue No. 15, Mar. 2000, 15 Dec. 2004 <http://www.inac.gc.ca/nr/nwltr/sts/2000-03_e.html>. 19 James Henretta, et al., "Richard Allen and African-American Identity," America's History, Spring 1997, 11 Feb. 2006 <http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/spring97/allen.html>. 19 "Edsitement," 12 Feb. 2006 <http://edsitement.neh.gov>. 19 Abdullah al-Shiri, "Danish Cartoon Prompts Protest," Sunday
Herald 29 Jan. 2006, 12 Feb. 2006 <http://ww1.sundayherald.com/53793>.
20. Reference to Shakespeare:
(Shakespeare’s plays are cited with Roman capitals for the Act, small Roman numerals for the Scene, and Arabic numerals for the Lines).
20 Hamlet IV, i, 15-18.
In-text Footnotes or Endnotes may be added in an essay for a single Shakespearean play:
20 Lear sums up his whole tragedy when he says, "I am a man
more sinned against than sinning." (III, ii, 57)
21. Reference from the Bible, Catechism, or Sacred Texts:
Example in text:
An interesting reference was made to the picking of corn on the Sabbath.1
Example of Footnote citation, long form:
1 Matthew 12:1-8.
Example of Footnote citation, short form:
1 Mt 12:1-8.
List under Works Cited:
The New Jerusalem Bible: Reader's Edition. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Example in text:
The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that “Because of its common origin the human race forms a unity, for ‘from one ancestor [God] made all nations to inhabit the whole earth.'” 2
Example of first Footnote or Endnote citation of the above quote taken from Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part I, Section 2, Chapter 1, Article 1, Paragraph 6I, Reference Number: 360, Page 103, would be:
2 Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday,
Subsequent citation of the same quote:
3 Catechism, 360.
Citation of a different quote from the same book:
4 Catechism, 1499.
List under Works Cited:
Catechism of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday, 1994.
Examples of other Footnote or Endnote citations of sacred texts:
5 Pius XII, encyclical, Summi Pontificatus 3. 6 Roman Catechism I, 10, 24.
22. Citations for a single work throughout essay:
If the entire essay is about one book, e.g. Carrie only and there are no other sources used, a Footnote or Endnote is needed only for the first quotation as follows:
Stephen King, Carrie (New York: New American, 1974) 40. All subsequent quotations are from this edition.
After this, it is only necessary to supply the page number of the text:
Sheriff Otis Doyle testified that Miss Snell told him that "Carrie did it. Carrie did it." (198)
23. Sources used more than once:
For more detailed treatment of this topic, see How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes.
1. If a source was footnoted earlier, you can use a shortened Footnote or Endnote providing only the author’s surname and the reference page number:
1 King 197.
2. When two or more books by the same author are used as reference material, or there are sources by two or more authors with the same last name, include the short title or an abbreviated form of the title:
2 King, Fire-Starter 279.
2 King, It 13.