Analyzing the Similarities and Differences of Greuter’s Ego Development and Barrett’s Evolutionary Coaching

General description of the two bodies of work

Description of the Ego Development Theory

The Ego development Theory started a long time ago since Jane Loevinger’s imaginative and scant stage imageries compared to our present understanding of the entire route of development and the methods and designs of vertical development in the personal demesne. What makes Ego development theory different from other theories is that it focuses on include and it addresses on an individual.

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Many understand it as a framework that portrays the development of individuals, a process of people being exposed into greater awareness, integration and understand both the inner and the outer world. However, EDT focuses on the development of personal awareness as it fully recognizes that no one develops outside a cultural and linguistic surrounding. Furthermore, an individual cannot grow without an external context like historical, geographic and infrastructure

Evolution coaching theory

Barrett’s work explains the importance of evolution coaching framework in the process of human development. It is a new approach to coaching whereby the coach is allowed to measure the evolving consciousness of his or her clients. It doesn’t matter the type of coach one is. The important thing is to understand that every person you are working with is also in an evolution journey called the natural expedition of psychosomatic development. The place where your clients are in that journey always affects their goals and how they can respond to the challenges they face in their life. As a coach if you understand where the clients are and what is blocking their progress to the next level you can help them accelerate through it so that they can achieve their goals as quickly as possible. It was while Barrett was in a leadership position that he recognised a thought of human evolution in the business world and this influenced him to develop the rational evolutionary theory.

Description of life and executive coaching

The coaching profession is proliferating worldwide major in Asia, Middle East and Latin America. The rise of this job is due to the globalization of the economy over the last two decades hence businesses are going for competent people at all levels of management. Owners of emerging businesses are also in the market to look for effective leaders and managers to manage their businesses. The companies are also willing to help their employees and managers to improve on their managerial and leadership skills and capabilities. Hence these owners of large companies and organizations see executive coaching as the best and effective option of achieving their goals. Big organizations and companies believe that through these type of coaching they can help in growing and developing the talents they have in their organizations.

In Europe, executive coaching profession has grown because there is an increased demand as more individuals are seeking to improve their careers in all levels of management. The best way of attaining the skills the workers and managers need is for them to get coaches they can trust and those who can help them make the best choices and decisions in comparison to long-term benefits. The workers should compare if the cost of getting such coaching is trivial.

Undergoing executive coaching is not a sign of failure or under-performance, but it’s a practice which can help one correct his or her malfunctions. Also, undergoing executive coaching is a sign of commitment to improving one’s performance, and it can help one gain promotion and become increasingly successful.

The Ridler report which examines the trends occurring in executive coaching explains the qualities most clients require from their coaches. According to information collected from over 145 companies which do hire executive coaches the top qualities looked at by those groups were the ability of the coach to raise consciousness of his or clients in terms of behavior and second quality which was being looked at was the ability of the coach to give back a challenging feedback to his clients.

When giving executive coaching the coach should be ready to receive ingrained designs of conduct which are either good or bad which is a way in which clients can address their unmet needs. Executive coaching relies mostly on approach and purpose and not skills. The skills which are needed in executive coaching are the same as those required in other forms of coaching which are connecting, listening, objectives, and clarifying expectations.

Intention of using Greuter’s and Barrett’s model in coaching

The two works are very useful in the field of coaching. The theories can facilitate coaching values as they help in setting up a coherent practical tools which improve physical fitness during the coaching process. There is a great concern among a lot of people who are committed to achieving the shifts which are needed in building resilience among those who need to undergo coaching. They provide models which can be used in coaching to ensure that clients are engaged actively so that there can be a connection between them and the coaches and as a result, they will be able to create work networks.

They have an already designed work for coaches and leaders which helps them to effectively transform practitioners who have the desire to expand their services and skills.
The two works also aim at feeding practitioners with skills which will empower them to have sustainable performances, accomplishments and fulfilments in their works. They will also help in the psychological development of the individuals as well as emotional growth.

The skills gained from the two theories will also help clients transform on various fields as they will gain new skills and knowledge. They demonstrate the broader perspectives of understanding self-mystery, authenticity and multiplicity hence they will achieve higher performance in their work, and they will have the ability to create and authentic leadership in their organisations.
Greuter and Barrett have managed to give a clear way on how coaching can be achieved effectively as they have given out some good programs like in-house training or coaching which can be done by individuals undertaking coaching sessions while at home.

The works also provide coaches with broad information which will help them inspect executive coaching and development developments. The theories also give solutions to some problems which will help clients get good positions and promotions as they can nurture their talents to achieve great performance.

Academic background

Dr Susanne Cook-Greuter

Dr Susanne Cook-Greuter is an independent scholar born in Switzerland. The scholar holds a doctorate in education from the University of Harvard. Commonly, the doctor is known for her Ego Development Thesis framed in 1999. Cook-Greuter is an intercontinental known author on mature Adult Expansion. She has a doctorate in Human Development and psychology from the Harvard University. Susanne is one of the founder members of the Integral Institute and one of the directors of the Integral Psychology Center. She also owns a lot of workshops worldwide which teaches people about leadership maturity framework and its usage for coaching people, teams and organizations.

Greuter is also the Author of the SCTi-MAP, which is a professional sentence completion examination which is based on Loevinger’s work. She owns a database which is over seven thousand seven hundred SCT protocols. The SCT-MAP test remains the most sophisticated and statistically demanding assessment means available to test a person’s level of meaning-making. Unlike other theories developed, her leadership Maturity framework depends upon empirical methods hence it keeps evolving as new evidence are discovered.

Cook is also a seasoned practitioner who consults various schemes in the study design using both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis. Susanne is also the head of numerous firms like Management consulting and coaching firm, Cook-Greuter and Associates. These organisations she leads offers SCTi-MAP tools to many people, groups and corporations which value the development perspective. Her main agenda is to substitute professional brilliance and continuity of learning through action review, testing and coaching. Regarding the development of the Greuter’s concept of ego development theory, she developed the model through her comprehensive research on human development stages shortly before her graduation.

Richard Barrett

Richard Barrett is a British author born in 1945. Richard Barrett is a native of Atlanta. The scholar graduated from the University of Georgia in 1975. Further, he received Master’s in business administration from Hartford University. He writes about leadership, values, leadership improvement, and cultural evolution in both business and society. He is the one who is responsible for the development of the theory of the Universal Stages of Evolution.

The theory is about the idea of individual and social entropy and the creation of valuation tools which rely on Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs, and also it entails some replicas of higher realization. The models help in mapping the values of people, businesses and communities. Barrett is also the founder of Barret Values Center which levelled in 1997. He used to work for the Leicester City Municipality before he moved to start up his consultancy training in 1977. He worked as a consultant representing the World Bank from 1979 to 1985 after which he became one of the staffs.

Barret developed the idea of three Common stages of Evolution from 2002-2009. The concept was based on a more inclusive characterisation of the theory of consciousness. The theory is found in the book he published in 2011.

The major phases in the two works:

  1. Greuter’s work.
  2. The pre-conventional phase.

Greuter’s theory does not focus on infant or children development as it is for adult development hence the theory has given a brief description of the pre-conventional phase. According to Greuter’s work, she believes that human beings are born undistinguishable and are symbiotically merged with their early caregivers. For the children to adjust well in their adulthood, it will depend on the successful solutions to the problems they faced in their earliest stages of life. The solution includes developing a different self-identity and having adequate psychosexual, intelligent, emotional, ethical and social growth.

In this phase, the kids have not yet developed or acquired verbal language. The language development process of children is subsumed in the interdependent stage of Loevinger’s theory. The step represents the healthy development of a child between the ages of two to twelve years. In between this period, the kids are beginning to use simple verbal language. The kids can express their desires by crying, making noise and pointing to the things they want.

They can go to the extent of crying if things don’t go their way. Hence, they need protection from others or institutions. A high percentage of adults in some setups operate in the opportunist stage natural disaster, wars and social hardness are the ones who can make them develop opportunist behaviour. The pre-conventional stage has three stages which are the symbiotic stage, opportunist stage and lastly the conformist stage.

The symbiotic stage

At this stage, the infants start to develop and construct a stable word of objects by themselves. They start understanding that they are also objects in this world too. The kid starts developing the aspect of self-sense in conjunction with the cultural context, a language shared and reality. The symbiotic stage is not shown in the leadership maturity framework because adults at this stage are nonverbal and are most likely to be under the care of some people or are institutionalised.

The impulsive stage

Kids at this stage are controlled by the impulses that is why it is called the impulsive exists. They understand the world through senses and movement. People at this stage of life don’t have many ways to deal with challenges. Adults who are at this stage of life tend to be governed by trying to achieve their basic needs. If steps needs are not met, they will cry, scream or even withdraw themselves. People at this stage feel overwhelmed and abandoned easily. An individual at impulsive stage has an inadequate understanding of the complexities of the adult life and the challenges of the world. These individuals often appear confused and anxious.

The rule-oriented stage

This stage shows cognitive differentiation which happens due to self-protective thinking. In this stage of life, people view the world in two ways.

The conventional phase

The conventional phase has three stages which are the conformist, self-awareness and the conscientious stage. This phase covers the ego stages of people above 12 years. 80% of grownups are found within these phase as most of them are working towards being experts and great achievers.

The conformist stage which is the first one under the conventional phase is a stage where the adult is integrated into a new social container. At this stage, people tend to make sense of the world differently. People at this stage have developed enough skills which can help get around the world, do their daily tasks, manage themselves, and they can manage and deal with concrete issues. Also, they play by the rules put into place.

People at this stage of life can see the importance of other people and some want to be like others whom they admire. Conformist stage describes people who have developed mentally and are in latency and adolescence. People at the conformist stage put a lot of value on appearance, material possession and want to have a reputation. They also worry about what others think about them and are concerned about their social acceptance.

Individuals at this stage, tend to give a lot of advice while they are telling others about what to do or not. They evaluate their clients according to their preferences. The language used by people at this stage is impersonal, nice and is always a positive one. Everything to this person’s life is always fun, enjoyable and they are of great importance to them.

The self-conscious is another stage within the conventional stage. This is the stage where an individual undergoes differentiation. The stage involves people who can take a stage backwards and see themselves as objects. Moving a step back and reflect on their life helps them to see the patterns and relate their behaviour with others. At this stage, some individuals have a good understanding of themselves.

They also want to be different from others and be recognized as special. People like these are experts, and it’s difficult to work with them as they want to be single contributors and won’t collaborate easily, they seem to be self-assured about their knowledge. People at this stage of life evaluate and compare others according to their capabilities and qualities.

The achiever stage is the last stage in the conventional phase. This is the stage of integration and re-embedding one into a more significant cultural context using different affinities and specific criteria. This is the first stage people come to realise that they can continue to grow in mind and heart. People at this stage have goals to achieve, places to go and opportunities to make self-improvements. People at this stage of life know their capabilities and successes. They have internalised societal standards.

The post-conventional phase

The change from conventional to post-conventional phases is an indication of a large-scale shift in the process of differentiation and creation of self-understanding. At this stage there is a great understanding of the environment and it is easy to integrate into new systems easily. People who are at this stage are moving towards a more complete, full-bodied and are informed of the interdependence which exist within the available systems. The post conventional phase has the following stages: The general systems stage, which involves initial differentiation and integration, another stage is second differentiation and integration.

The general systems stage is where an individual utilises that the meaning of objects depends on a person’s relation stand towards them. It also depends on the personal perspective and interpretation of things. Even though objects in one’s life are seen as permanent and have a particular meaning they are seen to have a context-dependent meaning according to that person.

This phase is commonly observed among most grown-ups in the United States. Individuals at this phase tend to have an expanded mind-set, and at the same time procedures, they have a restricted mindfulness which is made up of profound issues and the behaviour existence of themselves as well as other people.

At this stage, people begin to realize that things are not the way they seem to be. They start seeing them as problems which need to be solved. Things which seem to be problems are now seen as polarities which can be managed and put to use. Individuals at this stage, look at the world with a different eye. Also in, post-conventional stage, people are more concerned about their interiors, their feelings and motivations. They start to be aware of internal conflicts.

The autonomous stage which is part of the post-conventional phase represents a fourth person perspective as it focuses on an individual’s experience on how he or she views the world.
Loevinger named the stage autonomous because at this phase an individual can make meaning autonomously without depending on conventional ideas. In this stage, one has the freedom to interpret reality so that it serves his or her preferences.

People in the autonomous stage see life as a continuing journey as they believe that there is no predetermined way to follow in life. Each person has to create his or her way or lifestyle, and everybody is responsible for his or her achievement. People at this phase do not see seeking advice or consulting as a big deal like in the case of conventional phase.

Barrett’s phases

Barrett’s work has discussed seven aspects or stages of development. Each phase represents a given level of maturity in one’s life. Also, our needs changes when we move from one period to another. Below is a description of those phases according to Barrett’s work.

Surviving

One starts surviving as soon he or she is born. Even the infants know how they should establish themselves so that the can remain a viable entity in this world. At this stage, the kids depend entirely on others. In the process of psychological development, one should separate from those whom e or she depends on so one can learn how to control himself over the surrounding environment so that his needs are met. If the needs of a kid are not met or are violated, the kid will grow up knowing that the world is not a safe place to be. The feeling that one can meet his or her physiological survival needs is the initial and is the most important for one to develop his or her ego.

Conforming phase

Conforming is also known as a self-protective stage. In this stage, kids learn that life is interesting and less threatening when they are at peace with others more so their parents. The main problem at this stage is about making the kid learn to feel loved by his or her family. If the kids grow up in a poor parenting environment, they will feel unloved and the kid will end up developing unconscious fear-based beliefs and will believe that the world is unfair.

If a kid grows where their parents treat them with respect and consideration but insist that the kids should live by the rules, then the kids will grow up feeling secure. Feeling loved is the second most essential need one needs in developing his or her ego.

Differentiating

At this stage, children want to feel recognised for things which the do well. The main aim of this phase is to help the kid develop a sense of self-pride about his or her accomplishments and develop the feeling of self-worth. Parents are essential at this stage because as they are required to give their kids positive feedbacks for anything good they do. Failure to give the kid acknowledgements, they will grow up subconscious and fear based beliefs.

If a kid transitions through the first three phases without any trauma or without developing any unintentional fear-based views, it will be easy for him or her to establish himself as a viable independent person and will be able to manage his internal stability and external steadiness.

Individuating

Individuating stage occurs when one has already become an adult. At this phase, an individual starts to surpass his or physical and emotional reliance on parents and family members. He starts releasing the subconscious fear which they learned while they were still kids that he doesn’t have enough of what he needs to survive. People at this stage can control their emotions and can be accountable for them and can overcome the fear-based views they had developed before.

People who lived in an environment where there was a liberal democracy, they may reach the individuation stage earlier than those who grew up under and authoritarian regime.

Self-Actualising

Self-Actualising stage involves one learning how to bring into line the needs of one’s ego with other needs like those for the soul and some values which will help one live free from fear. It also involves making decisions on what is important for you or not. It is at this stage that one starts to realise the purpose of his soul.

Integrating

It involves moving from independence to interdependence. The connections one has with others play a huge role in knowing the level of fulfilment in one’s life. The integrating stage involves one activating fully his or her purpose in life. . A few people get so wrapped up in themselves and their work at this phase of advancement that they can’t make this move. They lose all sense of direction in their particular imagination, concentrating just on their energy as opposed to the more significant commitment they could make on the off chance that they lined up with other people who share a similar business. There is nothing amiss with following this way if this is one’s reason for living.

Serving

Barrett further articulated that amid the last phase of improvement, one will feel attracted to an existence of self-less administration, particularly on the off chance that one has turned out to be monetarily autonomous, have an annuity or never again rely on the salary from one’s work for one’s survival. At this phase of advancement, one needs to offer back to the world and leave an inheritance. One will wind up being attracted to supporting individuals in one’s group, mitigating their misery, nurturing the hindered, assembling a superior society or helping individuals with their advancement.

In the meantime, one will likewise turn out to be more thoughtful, searching for approaches to extend one’s feeling of association with one’s spirit. One will wind up turning into an attendant of astuteness, a senior or the individual that more youthful individuals swing too for direction and tutoring.

Similarly as with each other formative move, moving from attention on having any effect to an existence of self-less administration will influence one’s demeanours, one’s practices, and one’s esteem. One will reveal new levels of sympathy as one turns out to be all the more firmly required in serving the necessities of others. One will feel a feeling of quietude and appreciation as one perceives the effect one’s administration can convey to one’s group or society.

Theories that Build the Ego Development Theory

Piaget

In Piagetian terms, phase three speaks to working at the solid operational level, arrange 3/4 utilizes theoretical operations and phase four people depend on formal operations for their significance making. As indicated by Piaget and the psychological schools of valuable improvement, Conscientious phase four individuals have a straight perspective of reality: they characterize objects (factors) as being partitioned and having shut limits; they consider causality to be direct and factors are dealt with as single entities different from each other.

Jane Loevinger

Ego Development Theory has made considerable progress since Jane Loevinger’s unique (1970) and scanty phase descriptions contrasted with one’s present comprehension of the full direction of improvement, and the components, and examples of vertical development in the individual domain. What makes Ego Development Theory remarkable and not quite the same as different hypotheses in the field of constructivist formative methodologies is its emphasis on stepwise developmental stages.

Ego Development Theory tends to the entire individual. It is best comprehended as a system that depicts the development of people as moving into ever more prominent mindfulness and incorporation about both the internal and the external world. In spite of the fact that Ego Development Theory concentrates on the improvement of individual mindfulness, it entirely perceived that there is no individual advancement is outside a social and phonetic encompass, nor is singular development conceivable without the outer setting (authentic, geographic, Foundation, and so forth.)

William Torbert

Torbert’s bits of knowledge were initially given life stories of chronicled models and also on interviews with exactly dozen pioneers and high-positioning organisation officers. Besides, Torbert has tended to take his significance making and his case as a directing edge for what Alchemists resemble. Greuter, again, developed from investigating a huge number of records from people of all kinds of different backgrounds.

In this way, the researcher’s information concentrates on the extensive scope of occupations, ages, and societies and depicts the qualities of Construct-mindful and Unitize people as anticipated onto the sentences stems by the subjects. It is conceivable that pioneers in authoritative settings regularly do show the particular characteristics that Torbert seen in his post-Strategist people. About ego development theory, Tolbert, through the development and evolution of the Harthill LDP, a program designed to assess the actions of adults as per each stage of development aided in formulating and completing the entire ego development theory.

Michael Commons

It is worth to note that the researcher incorporates a reference to Commons and Richards phases of various leveled multifaceted nature which broaden Piaget’s intellectual model into the post-ordinary level. Be that as it may, Commons’ is simply a psychological model that benefits scholarly ability and subjective nimbleness over different measurements of being an individual.

Regarding ego development theory, Michael commons articulates the five stages developed and shaped during childhood period. For instance, Michael commons in his article argues that human behavior results from the interaction between the three fundamental components, some which includes the ego and superego. Such ideas cited by Michael commons in his research aids in forming the basis of ego development theory.

A Broad Definition of Greuter’s and Barrett’s Levels

The Symbiotic Stage 1

Symbiotic stage 1 refers to a stage where infants begin to make an unchanging world of things. In that matter the infants distinct themselves as objects in the world. In doing so, they separate themselves out as objects in the world as well. Here the infants begin referring to themselves as “me”, “junior” wants among others. The beginning of language as an easy feature of meaning-making self-sense develops alongside external reality, language and values and cultural setting.

The Impulsive Stage 2

Infants at this stage are overseen by individual impulses. They explore the universe and make sense out of it by movements and senses. They lack the experience of handling hindrances, but they can notice and give a reaction during times thing are not near or when they lack enough of what you require of them. At this stage people solely depend on others and the ones who are well taken care of realize it from own sensations.

Magical thoughts triumph and the feeling of boundless power occurs and is only restrained by the withdrawal of the exceeding power owners or punishment. Punishment does not have any relation with an individual’s behavior, but it is only seen as reactive and forthcoming in things. In this level portray signs of the use of language concurrently with developing ego as can be depicted in statements such as “I want.” They proclaim their self- maturing sense by words that express possession like “mine,” “no, among others.

Self-Protective or Opportunistic Stage 2/3

Self-protective is a stage of differentiation that results from entirely depending on the care of others. Here the children strive to talk using sentences that have a variety of words. The children also embrace the use of symbols although they lack knowledge of how the universe works. These factors make even the adults who are in this stage of development to employ charmed thinking to make sense of the universe and the position held by humans. Currently, those people in this stage are seen as remote.

The Conformist Stage 3 (Diplomat)

The conformist stage refers to a stage of assimilation to a new communal vessel. At this stage, people newly make logic of the universe. People here have been well equipped with skills to explore the world, finish their life tasks and above all to be able to control actual things and situations. In this stage, people strive to work as per the set rules. The people also view others as being important on individual rights. The people of this stage imitate mostly people of their surrounding who they appreciate.

The Conscientious or Achiever Stage 4

It is a stage of integration and individual re-embedding in a larger social context which is done on self-chosen measures based on conceptual attractions. Therefore this makes the western culture’s greatest target. Education systems are set towards coming up with people who are emotionally self-reliance with mental capacity to make them independent. On the other hand, democratic governance is based on the concept of electorate which can think critically to make distinctions. Our organization of instruction, business and jurisprudence are founded on sovereign adults following their self-chosen desires within the defined social environment.

The Individualist – Pluralist Stage 4/5

The stage defines what one can see from the fourth viewpoint. At this stage, people appreciate they are different from what they were at previous stages because understanding of actuality depends on the observer’s position. The time people realize that they influence things that they observe, unprejudiced decision becomes unbearable.

The finding is supported by modern challenges of the technical expectations of the Newtonian view of the universe in astrophysical as well as subatomic sciences. We filter individual observations by our subjective as well as personal lenses. Consequently, individuals at this stage can validate other people’s perspectives, as well as views, are opposed to disregarding other people’s preferences, values and preferences because they view all to be similar.

The Autonomous Stage 5: (Strategist)

The stage represents a distended fourth person perception that puts one’s understanding into the setting of many perceptions of the world only in people’s days. Cognitively Independent people have generalized system of viewing actuality for they can easily understand many systems that are intertwined as well as internal and external processes that people experience.
Distended fourth person perception is indeed world-centric.

Whereas early stages portray world-centric goals and values, Strategists hold and exemplify the doctrines of global perception. They do not only see individual meaning-making but also they see the aspects that are interconnected aspects of the external world. Within a wide social network and extended time frame, independent people observe overall designs.

The Construct-aware and Ego-aware Stage 5/6 (Magician, Alchemist)

This stage is the final experiential variation in the order of broad diversity. Unfortunately, the specialized labels suggested for this stage are insufficient to prompt the assortments as well as complexity of understanding. These specific labels refer to interactive aspects which are not common among the representatives.

The Unitive stage 6: The cosmic, ego-transcendent or witnessing perspective

It is the last stage in the arrangement of integration and differentiation in the classification of ego progress and the development of self-awareness. It grants a new way of observing human presence and knowledge of realization. The earlier way of seeing actuality is changed. The new model has a general perception on how meaning is made. Feelings of separateness, uniqueness, and belongingness are observed minus unnecessary.

Here adults look at themselves as well as other things as near and far in terms geographical locations, passing of years, cultural, intellectual developmental and historical dimensions. At this stage, people respect the essence in others and do not desire them to be different from what they are. People in this stage may be seen as not being fully involved in the pursuits, concerns, and goals of humankind.

In this stage, people feel interrelated with others because all sentient intellectual people fight to make sense as well as to live. People in this stage feel compassion, affiliation, and tolerance with all appearances of life. The people have unrealistic know-hows thus they understand things in analog and holistic ways.

Levels of evolutionary coaching

Surviving

The survival journey for survival begins immediately a baby is born. The infant through instincts knows that for it to remain in the world, it should create a sustainable thing. The infant depends on others for the fulfillment of its needs. At the first stage of development, one should learn to control his or her environment to meet survival needs. The feeling of meeting survival necessities is significant in a person’s ego-mind.

Conforming

At this time, the kids realize life is less intimidating as well as enjoyable when they are in good terms with their parents. Undertaking here is to learning how to feel loved in your household. Obedience to rules and rituals is significant for they facilitate an individual’s sense of security and combine one’s sense of fitting. Here the children learn behaviors and beliefs that minimize their pain but maximize their desires.

Differentiating

At this point, youngsters need to be recognition for what they perform well. Main undertaking in this period is developing a sense of self-worth as well as a sense of pride in that one does. One needs to feel good for being acknowledged and recognized by the peers and parents. At this stage, parents are very important for the feedback that the child needs for if the feedback is not available one can grow with subconscious belief of fear that you are not good at all.

Individuation stage

It is a stage which normally to adults in late 20 years or early 30s. Here people start to excel their emotional as well as physical reliance on the family, parents, community and cultural group where we belong. Here we also begin to learn how to do away with subconscious fears. Individuation depends on one’s feeling of security, willingness, to react to the attraction we feel of becoming accountable for our beliefs, values, and emotions. After one has learned and mastered the primary wants and has proven as a sovereign person in a large world than the community that raised him, he or she feels a sense of pull to the next stage.

Self-Actualizing

The stage entails striving to bring into line the needs of one’s ego with those of the soul, as well living a life that is purpose-oriented and value-driven and free from fear. It means therefore that one needs to let go beliefs and enhancing values. Any progress made in this respect dictates how quick one can manifest the purpose of his or her soul.

Integrating

For one to shift from self-actualization to integration, one must move to interdependence from independence. The fulfillment that one feels depends on the quality of the established connections other people and one’s ability to influence the surrounding environment. The stage includes motivating one’s sense of purpose to make a difference in the universe.

Later on you realize that you can be of great importance in case you aligned with other people with similar values and for it to happen you need to have empathy. For this to happen, you will need to develop empathy. You may end up coaching those people that are at your stage of development.

Serving

It is the last stage of development, and it includes life that is of selfless service that is aimed at bettering the planet and humanity. As one enters the stage, he or she gets involved in activities of finding ways of preserving the world’s systems of life support for coming generations and living sustainably with all that you do.

Here the current capacity of service tends to be small for somebody. When you reach this stage, you focus on improving the well-being of the community, society, and family where you live. You start to that human beings are interrelated energetically.

Barrett’s 7 levels of evolutionary coaching

1. The Symbiotic Stage 1

Symbiotic stage is evident among the infants where infants begin to make unchanging world of things. In that matter the infants distinct themselves as objects in the world. Therefore, they separate themselves as objects in the world. Here the infants begin referring to themselves as me, junior among others. At this stage the infants explore the world through movement as well as sense because they lack alternative ways of handling setbacks.

Surviving

The survival journey for survival begins immediately a baby is born. The infant through instincts knows that for it to remain in the world, it should create a sustainable thing. The infant depends on others for the fulfillment of its needs. At the first stage of development, one should learn to control his or her environment to meet survival needs. The feeling of meeting survival necessities is significant in a person’s ego-mind.

2. The Conformist Stage 3 (Diplomat)

This refers to a stage where people begin to have a new look of the universe that they live in. the people begin to see others as being equally important as they do. The conformist stage refers to a stage of assimilation to a fresh communal vessel. At this stage, people newly make logic of the universe. People here have been well equipped with skills to explore the world, finish their life tasks and above all to be able to control actual things and situations. In this stage people strive to work as per the set rules. The people also view others as being important on Individual rights. The people of this stage imitate mostly people of their surrounding who they appreciate.

The Individualist – Pluralist Stage 4/5

The stage is characterized by the fact that people get to acknowledge and appreciate that they are different from their previous stages because of their position. In this stage people realize that they have the power of influence what they observe and above all unprejudiced decision becomes unbearable. The people’s finding is supported by modern challenges of the technical expectations of the Newtonian view of the universe in astrophysical as well as subatomic sciences. Personal observations as well as personal lenses are used to filter the people’s observations in this stage. Elsewhere, people at this stage can validate other people’s perspectives, as well as views, are opposed to disregarding other people’s preferences, values and preferences because they view all to be similar.

Conforming

In this stage infants come to realize that life is less intimidating as well as enjoyable when they are in good terms with their parents. Elsewhere, obedience to rules and rituals is significant for they facilitate the people’s sense of security and combine one’s sense of fitting in the society. In this stage the people also learn behaviors and beliefs that minimize their pain but maximize their desires. The understanding that people obtain in this stage enables them to develop a sense of loyalty, respect and belonging among the people of a society.

Individuation stage

Individuation stage is a stage which normally happens to adults in late 20 years or early 30s. Individuals in this stage start to excel their emotional as well as physical reliance on the family, parents, community and cultural group where we belong. People of this stage as well begin to learn how to do away with subconscious fears. The stage depends on one’s feeling of security, willingness, to react to the attraction we feel of becoming accountable for our beliefs, values, and emotions. The stage gives freedom for one to make a bearing for his or her future based on the current decision

The Autonomous Stage 5: (Strategist)

It is a stage that puts people’s understanding into the setting of many perceptions of the world only in their days. Cognitively Independent people have generalized system of seeing actuality because they can easily understand many systems that are intertwined as well as internal and external processes experienced by the people.

The stage is world-centric whereas other early stages portray world-centric goals and values. the stage holds and exemplifies the doctrines of global perception. People in this stage do not only see individual meaning-making but also interconnected aspects of the external world. Within a wide social network and extended time frame, independent people observe general designs.

The Unitive stage 6: The cosmic, ego-transcendent or witnessing perspective

The stage grants a new way of observing human presence and knowledge of realization. The previous way of seeing actuality is changed. The new model has a general perception on how meaning is made. Feelings of separateness, uniqueness, and belongingness are observed minus unnecessary. Here adults look at themselves as well as other things as near and far in terms geographical locations, passing of years, cultural, intellectual developmental and historical dimensions.

At this stage, people respect the essence in others and do not desire them to be different from what they are. People in this stage may be seen as not being fully involved in the pursuits, concerns, and goals of humankind. In this stage, people feel interrelated with others because all sentient intellectual people fight to make sense as well as to live. People in this stage feel compassion, affiliation, and tolerance with all appearances of life. The people have unrealistic know-hows thus they understand things in analog and holistic ways.

Serving

It is a stage that includes selfless service live that is meant to better the planet as well as humanity. People in this stage get involved in activities coming up with ways of preserving the world’s systems that support life for coming generations and sustainable living. In this stage the capacity of service tends to be small for an individual. People in this stage focus on improving the well-being of the community, society, and family where they live.

Integrating

At this stage a person’s fulfillment relies on the quality of the established connections with other people and one’s ability to influence the surrounding environment. It entails motivating one’s sense of purpose to make a difference in the universe. In this stage one comes to the understanding that he or she can be of great importance if aligned with other people with similar values and empathy. For this to happen, one seriously needs to develop empathy. The stage motivates one to go as far as guiding those in in reach.

The Impulsive Stage 2

At this stage people solely depend on others and the ones who are well taken care of realize it from own sensations. Magical thoughts triumph and the feeling of boundless power occurs and is only restrained by the withdrawal of the exceeding power owners or punishment.In this level portray signs of the use of language concurrently with developing ego as can be depicted in statements such as “I want.” At this stage They proclaim their self- maturing sense by words that express possession like “mine,” “no, among others.

Differentiating

This is a stage where people need recognition for all that they do. In this stage one needs to feel good for being acknowledged and recognized by the those around him. At this stage, parents are very important for the feedback that the child needs for if the feedback is not available one can grow with subconscious belief of fear that you are not good at all.

The Autonomous Stage 5: (Strategist)

It is a stage that puts people’s understanding into the setting of many perceptions of the world only in their days. Cognitively Independent people have generalized system of seeing actuality because they can easily understand many systems that are intertwined as well as internal and external processes experienced by the people.

The stage is world-centric whereas other early stages portray world-centric goals and values. the stage holds and exemplifies the doctrines of global perception. People in this stage do not only see individual meaning-making but also interconnected aspects of the external world. Within a wide social network and extended time frame, independent people observe general designs.

Self-Actualizing

The stage comprises of people striving to bring into line the needs of one’s ego with those of the soul. The people in this stage live a life that is value-driven and purpose-oriented free from fear. It means therefore that one needs to let go beliefs and enhancing values. Any progress made in this respect dictates how quick one can manifest the purpose of his or her soul.
In this stage the people align their efforts in common visions as well as values.

Differences between Greuter’s and Barrett’s Levels

1. Serving

The stage when integrated in coaching, it facilitates the creation of sustainable long-term future for a company and protecting systems that support life on the universe. Therefore the adoption of the stage to organizational coaching leads to preservation of the wellbeing of the involved organization for the coming groups.
The Autonomous Stage 5: (Strategist)
In this stage the people have understood various perceptions of the universe and they have had a generalized manner of viewing actuality and can easily define the internal and external systems. Therefore its application will be tedious to manage and control the enlightened individuals who have a global view of events. The workers’ view of systems is within a wide social network and extended time frame, independent people observe overall designs.

2. Integrating

The stage helps in construction of an organization’s flexibility by collaborating with the local communities where the community carries out its operations. Making allies with other companies which have similar values in turn give many impacts to the organization involved.

The Unitive stage 6: The cosmic, ego-transcendent or witnessing perspective

This stage grants workers of an organization a new way of observing human presence and knowledge of realization. The previous way of seeing actuality is transformed. In this stage, people respect the essence in others and do not wish them to be different from what they are. People in this stage may be seen as not being fully involved in the pursuits, concerns, and goals of humankind.

In this stage, people feel interrelated with others because all sentient intellectual people fight to make sense as well as to live. People in this stage feel compassion, affiliation, and tolerance with all appearances of life. Therefore incase the stage is employed in coaching it will lead to high motivation of the workers to work.

3. Self-actualizing

This stage when integrated into coaching it enhances the ability of a company to collectively work with the employees who have similar inspiring visions and values. The collectiveness in organizations help create an organization which is cohesive and this in return enables it to attain its goals.

The Autonomous Stage 5: (Strategist)

It is a stage that puts people’s understanding into the setting of many perceptions of the world only in their days. Cognitively Independent people have generalized system of seeing actuality because they can easily understand many systems that are intertwined as well as internal and external processes experienced by the people. The stage helps people to have a clear understanding of various designs in the world. In case the stage is employed in coaching it will take the companies involved to greater heights.

4. Individuating

Incase this stage is incorporated into coaching, it helps people or workers of an organization a chance of making decisions and holding them accountable for the future of the organization, the individuals’ future and also the organizational ‘success. Therefore the stage when used in the organizations, it empowers the workers because it grants them with autonomy and freedom.

The Individualist – Pluralist Stage 4/5

This stage is defined by the fact that people get to acknowledge and appreciate that they are different from their previous stages because of their position. People in this stage realize that they have the capability of influencing what they observe and above all unprejudiced decision becomes unbearable. By adopting the stage to coaching it will make the workers in performing to come up with best results.

5. Differentiating

The stage entails policies, processes and structures that facilitate performance of a firm, workers’ self-importance and above all facilitate order in an organization.
When the stage is adopted in coaching it enhances coming up with excellent systems of performance and procedures at aim at professionally managing organizations.

The Impulsive Stage 2

This stage is characterized by people depending on others. The ones who are well taken care of realize that the service is for their own sensations. Mystic thoughts achievement and the feeling of boundless power occur and is only restrained by the withdrawal of the exceeding power owners or punishment.

In case this stage is adopted into coaching the workers ability to work will be boosted with the mystic feelings of the workers.

6. Conforming

The stage entails building pleasant relations which enhance a feeling of fidelity amongst the customers and the employees of an organization. The stage if adopted into coaching ensures that the workers of the companies have a sense of mutual understanding, fidelity and belonging when serving esteemed customers.

The Conformist Stage 3 (Diplomat)

This stage is characterized by people beginning to have a new look of the universe that they live in as well as seeing others as being equally important as they do. Elsewhere, the stage is an assimilation of people to a fresh communal vessel. Consequently, people newly make logic of the universe. People in this stage have been well equipped with skills to explore the world, finish their life tasks and above all to be able to control actual things and situations. Therefore people in this stage strive to work as per the set rules.
Therefore incase the stage is adopted into coaching, it will come up with workers who are disciplined, rule oriented and hardworking what will result into high yields for the involved corporations.

7. Surviving

The stage entails making caring for the well-being of the workers in the organization as well as enabling financial constancy. The stage when adapted to an organization, it enables it to become financially sustainable and sovereign.

The Symbiotic Stage 1

The stage is characterized by the fact that people begin to make unchanging world of things. In this case people begin to distinct themselves as objects in the world. Generally they separate themselves as objects in the world.

In case the stage is used in coaching it enable people to work differently in their positions but under the same organization o provide high outcomes.

Impact of similarities of Greuter’s and Barrett’s work in coaching

The work done by Greuter and Barrett was able to facilitate coaching values by setting up coherent practical tools way back from physical fitness during coaching activities. It is generally becoming more of a great concern for many people to engage in personal commitment to fulfil the shifts that are required in building resilience among the people who are coached.

The use of various models in the assigned work while carrying out coaching activities has actively engaged individuals and communities on their way of achieving interconnectedness as well as creating potential working networks. The work done is designed for coaches and leaders to effectively transform practitioners who have the desire of expanding their services and having the dream of making their developmental work move to the next level. The coaching criteria that has been proposed by the two scholars puts in place the ability of empowering individuals so that they can be able to have sustainable performance, fulfilment and enjoyment while they are carrying out their personal activities.

Carrying out the work helps one to be transformed on various fields such as psychological development, engaging an individual’s spiritual intelligence and monitoring the emotional development that has become one of the rising problems when it is considered in a wider perspective in the current society[footnoteRef:1]. The work demonstrates the broader perspectives of understanding self-mystery, authenticity and multiplicity that was carried out on the systems which is paramount in achieving higher performance and having the ability of creating an authentic leadership.

The main aim of the work is to introduce each person with methodologies and tools that will be critical while working for various clients who will be tasked with the work of knowing their power, as well as considerable effectiveness thus creating a deeper and meaningful change in their way of doing daily tasks. [1: Susanne R. & Cook, G. (2013).Ego Development Theory, Nine Levels of Increasing Embrace in Ego Development.]

Greuter and Barrett managed to give a clear way through which coaching can be achieved effectively by providing in-house programmes for the individuals undertaking the work across all cultural transformation[footnoteRef:2]. The work provides a leader board for one to accurately inspect executive coaching and developmental creativities. There are considerable prescriptive solutions that will help facilitate for individuals to get best positions because they are able to nurture their talent to achieve great performance.

The work done by Greuter and Barret have managed to integrate physical experience by use of personal experience in giving essential impact on coaching activities. The work helps one to talk and appropriate recovery. Both are taken as burgeoning field that use extreme passionate mindfulness to bring the best out of the participants. In the theory of evolutionary coaching, the author presents an overview of what a coach or a professional needs to know to give a healthy psychological development and growth.

In this theory, the two key ideas are brought forth. One is about human emergence and the second is self-realization. Barrett points out that there are about seven phases of psychological development which must be understood by a coach to facilitate the process of coaching. For effective coaching process, one must understand both the client’s primary and secondary motivations since they are the key factors influencing human growth and development.

Some of the primary and secondary physiological development stages as per Barrett’s theory includes: surviving, conforming, differentiating, individuating, self-actualizing and integration. They both explain some terms which the have employed in his writing and gives a definite meaning to coaching that has helped to make coaching effective to various people. It may refer to growth, development, emergence, and self-realization. On the other hand, psychology may apply to the science of mind in literal meaning, but in his work it is different. The combination of psychology and evolution leads to psychological development. [2: Richard B. (2014). 7 levels of psychological development.Routledge]

Greuter and Barret further states that many factors contribute to the psychological evolution which may include the extent of parental ideologies and the culture to which one belongs. Conditioning is passed to the siblings by their parents and helps them to survive. Mostly, it triggers responses that keep them alive. In human emergence, there are about three phases that are important in the process. It helps the people to face potential threats in the environment that can hinder them from meeting the basic needs.

Facilitators of coaching states that as one evolve or grow, in each phase he requires satisfaction of the needs of each level of development which yields the motivation factor. The motivation for the human is classified as primary or secondary. In the case of dissatisfaction, people become disoriented with those around them and even to the immediate surroundings. Humans value motivations that need to be satisfied and their values act as a reflection of the needs of the different individuals.

Many people do not know the source of their motivations and the phases of development, rather, they are passed from parents to children and thus they project onwards to the next generation. The desire for happiness is what drives to make different choices in life. Notably, the human needs are often more than the resources that are available. Equally, in the ego, the various phases of egos compete, and the individual must make a priority on which desire of life should be satisfied first. According to this principle, two things need to be satisfied for one to become happy. First is the satisfaction of the ego and the second is the fulfillment of the soul.

Therefore, true happiness is only achieved when the soul and the body are in equilibrium regarding ego satisfaction. The failure to satisfy any of the ego’s phases of growth and development leads to unhappy and unfulfilling life. In a nutshell, the decision that drives the life choices is encouraged by the need for personal satisfaction. In addition, coaching helps in having some resource personnel which guides people in making the right decisions during their practices.

Furthermore, this increases the extent in which people experience happiness. The personnel can be a mentor that becomes a life-long inspiration and guide to the human life and experiences. Parents, scientists, and priests cannot become evolutionary coaches as they embrace evolution as a journey of life, rather than the stepwise stages as discussed in the burette’s theory of growth and development. Therefore, all are entangled in their values, and hence they will give answers which are incomplete in one way or the other. According to Barrett, growth occurs when the subsequent phase is making more joyful than the previous where he coins it from Maslow’s work.

Both point out that when a person reaches higher levels of development, he or she starts to become aware of the growth. Life is just a stream of continued choices where a person first tries to make his or her happiness maximum and then try to maximize his or her desire for personal fulfillment. When one is faced with a situation with contradicting desires, he or she figures out a potential threat or an opportunity. He or she must make a choice of either safety or growth. Growth will occur when people choose to overcome the threat but if they retreat and do nothing they automatically run to safety. The reason why people retreat is that they feel they have a weaker ability than the threat itself.

Growth is given a definition of an endless series of choices. An adult person remains development level if his or her experience displays features that resemble those of ego distinction. Individualization state exists where one can choose independence over dependence. Self-actualization, integration, and service yield the seven phases of psychological development, and they only occur when people begin growth process[footnoteRef:3]. An evolutionary coach hence has to find ways in which one does not choose safety but growth. He must also support the client to get back on track if he or she is not on it. Other than that he must instill some qualities in the evolutionary journey of the customer. [3: Richard B. (2014). 7 levels of psychological development.Routledge]

Application of differences in coaching

Coaching has been described as in a spiral fashion, with an increase in growth the width of the spiral broadens, and more loops exist. Development occurs via interactions between individuals and their external surroundings. Greuter states that no matter how evolved we become, the knowledge that humans have and the understanding they get remains partial and incomplete. It is of the essence to note that this is an idea that is not seen anywhere else other than in evolutionary theory. Both theories have come to a consensus that when a person has passed earlier phases of development, he can understand the past phases of development and thus, one can become an evolutionary coach as it is laid in Barrett’s work.

Both theories are aware of the conscious development that is the cognitive state in which you are aware of the human self and the human situation. In relation to human physiology, Evolutionary theory contained detailed information concerning conscious growth development. i.e., the theory covers not only the body but also the brain development of any particular individual. The theory provides a distinct relationship between each phase of development and the level of consciousness attained.

It is different from Ego Development Theory where such information is only captured at a glance while omitting further details. Competent leaders and coaches in particular should ensure that their clients are equipped with Adaptability, emergent learning, bonding strength, and ability to manage complex situations. In evolutionary coaching, the framework of the journey of development is given. Though humans are on the same course, humans take different paths, or simply humans are not on the same trajectory.

The level to which humans are exposed to parental programming and cultural conditioning during the infant ages determines the degree to which an individual may express his or her talents and uniqueness. Most people do not discover who they are and hence they present their false selves. On the other hand, Ego development focuses on meaning-making and the whole person. The work acts as a mirror that shows the framework of growth of individuals to greater awareness of both the inner and outer world.

Cultural and linguistic surroundings affect the growth of one-self, and no growth occurs without external influence[footnoteRef:4]. Wilber and Loevinger works are used to develop the theory. The ego phases are idealizations and are gotten from empirical research using sentence completion manuals and verbalized material. [4: Richard B. (2014). 7 levels of psychological development.Routledge]

Major points covered

In human rise, there are around three stages that are vital all the while. The main level is the advancement of sense of self which infers the characteristic inclinations of the person to manufacture pomposity. The second stage is self image holding, which is the procedure of the association between the conscience and the spirit. The last stage is the rise of the spirit. The relationship that rises is the characterizing highlight of the human development process. It encourages the general population to confront the strong dangers in the condition that can ruin him or her from meeting the fundamental needs or take those that the scientist as of now has, and after that cognizance has created.

Develop, in each stage requires fulfilment of the necessities of each level of improvement which yields the inspiration factor of it. The inspiration for the human is delegated essential or optional. The second inspirations supersede the fundamental one on the off chance that it encounters an inside steadiness or harmon.

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