International Migration, Inclusion And Exclusion
I would like to emphasize the importance of the integrative approaches, including forced migration studies, migrant network analysis and the migration development nexus. Because these approaches would help our understanding of international migration. Firstly, I will start with forced migration studies. I think this study is more suitable for the story. Because most of the problems that he faced is based on the state, individual and social issues. This study examines the state and society issues at the macro, micro and meso level. In this story, Shamshad migrated from his country to another country with his older brother because of war and state terrorism.
Although they left in their country due to the security issues, his older brother was exposed to state terrorism rigorously. Because his brother was killed by the state official or committed suicide while in detention. He wouldn’t do nearly anything to against the state officials in Greece. I think he couldn’t go to law to be irregular migrant. According to refugee protection act, Greece state is responsible to explain why his brother killed. All these reflect the macro level. Meso level refers to asylum, migrant and refugee networks on one hand, and trafficking networks on the other, but also importantly the practices and decision-making of institutions and organizations such as the UNHCR and other NGOs, as well as ‘security disruptions’ which might be decidedly ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ simultaneously (Samers&Collyers 2017). From this perspective, he communicated with a few smugglers that brought him illegally to Norway through international border. He had to work in Iran to pay the smuggling fee to go to Europe. The fee wasn’t enough for smugglers to immigrate to Norway when they arrived in Greece. Again smugglers wanted him to pay the smuggling fee in Greece.
As a result, he paid lots of money to smugglers as an irregular migrant. If he had migrated to reach into Europe in a legal way. He would have spent less money. Smuggling is a global business with both illegal and legal ways (Van Limeit&Doomernik 2006). In fact, many of the smugglers actually own restaurants, barber shops and the like (Samers&Collyer 2017). They are gaining more money by doing trafficking. Also, they know the border regions very well. As a result, he was included within smugglers network as well as asylum network. In addition to, here is significantly the practices of international organizations and institutions. For instance, International Organization for Migration helped him to start his own business in his country. He is very grateful to them for helping. In my view, international migration can be reduced through the institutions that providing jobs and funding, which rise living standard and reduce poverty. At the micro level, it consists of personal reasons such as torture, harassment, killing, psychological trauma and so on. From this perspective, the main reason why they emigrated is fear. Because their life was in danger in Iran`s chaos environment. The psychological trauma continued for Shamshad by migrating to Norway when the authorities told him your brother had committed suicide. When we look at the story, we see that they had to work a few months to reach Europe. I think they were exploited by employer for cheap labour in Greece and Iran. Because they didn’t have a work permit in that countries. I am moving to the migrant network analysis. It is defined as the ties that link migrants, previous migrants and non-migrants within and between the countries and destination. I think Shamshad met a number of migrant and non-migrants throughout the journey. But the story doesn’t show how he linked and felt with them while migrating. I mean this is not the strong ties of being short time.
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Nevertheless, he was warned by the smugglers regarding asylum process. The migration development nexus approach is related to relationship between countries and regions of immigration and emigration, especially the impact of remittances and generally restricted to labour, family, transnational or diaspora oriented migration (Samers&Collyer 2017). From an economic point of view, Shamshad didn’t earn lots of money abroad. As can be seen from the story, he says that I literally returned with nothing. This is why he couldn’t send remittances in his country and also he didn’t return to his county with skills, knowledge as well as financial capital. In this sense, he didn’t contribute to the economic and social development of the country. Nevertheless, he tries to contribute to the economy of the country through international organizations. On the other hand, arresting his older brother in Greece shows the restriction of labour migration and the fragmentation of the family migration. Although his brother disappeared, he was still determined on his own to go to Norway. We can explain this situation with neo-classical economic theory that focus on macro level push-pull factors such as high standard of living, high wages, labour demand and supply. For these reasons, he migrated to Norway instead of being in Greece. As we see it, there is a paradox in this context. If his aim is to move away from the security issues in his country, he could live safely in Greece. In my view, Poverty is the main reason behind migration. But it is hard to judge whether it is in fact correct. Eventually, in Norway, Shamshad didn’t face with the life, what he had expected. He thought it would be easier to live in Norway. But he was very disappointed that his asylum application was rejected by the authorities twice and waited too long for a decision. This was not what he wanted. Another theory is a new migration theory (NEM).
According to this theory, migration decisions are not made by individual but by families or householders. Further, the decisions of migrants are affected by a number of factors which are shaped by conditions in the home country. As stated before, Shamshad decided to migrate to Norway with his older brother. We don’t know how they affect for this decision each other. Although they migrated to Europe because of the bad security situation, it could be said that another reason was economic factor. From this perspective, they could migrate to maximize their earnings within the household. But the story doesn’t tell anything related to this. Now I would like to mention theoretical perspective that is known as the Neo-Malthusian theory. Every society has limited resources and a limited number jobs (Brettell&Hollifield). I consider there is a connection between this theory and the rejection of his asylum. I suppose one of the reasons why his asylum application wasn’t accepted he may harm the social values likely. According to this theory, every society wants to live safely and without unemployment problems.
Therefore, a number of strict measure against some immigrants are taken by the states. Another theory that will help us better understanding of his story is dual labour market theory. It views international migration as a form of exploitation of the periphery nations by the core nations in the international migration (Oishi 2017). From this perspective, Capitalist countries always affect unskilled worker in poorer countries. As we see the story, Shamshad with his brother together decided to emigrate for a better life but they had many problems and exploited for cheap labour in every destination.