First published in 1941, the novel went through several editorial changes due in some part to the explosive nature of the times. The looming threat of Nazi censorship impacted everything in Europe during this time. It was eventually published in 1942 in its final form.

The 1946 version translated by Stuart Gilbert became the standard English translation in 1946.

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Although it may appear to be a small matter, the opening line of the novel has been a major point of disagreement among translators and scholars. In the French, the line reads “Aujord’hui, Maman est morte.” In the past this has been translated as “Maman died today.” Recent translations have favored “Today, Maman died.” Scholars agree that this captures the tone of the rest of the novel. That everything remains in the present tense is consistent with Meursault’s over disposition to live entirely in the moment without a thought of the past or future.

Film adaptations include Lo Straniero from 1967 and directed by Luchino Visconti (Italian); Yarzga, a Turkish film directed by Zeki Demirkubuz from 2001.

There is a graphic novel version called The Stranger; Based on the Novel by Albert Camus by Jacques Farrendez published in 2016.

 

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