For ease of study, topics have been divided into 11 categories
- Biomes and Ecozones – General Resources
- Alpine or Mountain Biomes
- Aquatic, Tidal, Estuarine (Estuary), Marine, Ocean, or Water Biomes
- Chaparral Biomes
- Desert Biomes
- Ecozones of Canada
- Grassland or Savanna Biomes
- Temperate, Boreal, Coniferous, Deciduous Forest, Taiga, or Woodland Biomes
- Tropical Rainforest Biomes
- Tundra Biomes
Biomes. A biome is a large, distinctive complex of plant communities created and maintained by climate. How many biomes are there?
Biomes. Lots of color photographs of Terrestrial Biomes, Un-Biome: Polar / Alpine, Tundra, Boreal Forest (Taiga), Temperate Forest, Grasslands (Steppes), Woodland (Chaparral), Desert, Tropical Deciduous Forest and Savannah, Tropical Rain Forest, and Temperate Rain Forest.
Biomes. Web pages developed by some 70 Grade 9 students at Thurston High School in Springfield, Oregon. Each page deals with one biome under these categories: Animals, Plants, Climate, and Health Issues.
Biomes – Habitats from EnchantedLearning.com. Site provides information on: Arctic Biome, Desert Biome, Chaparral or Scrub Taiga = Coniferous Forests, Grassland, Tropical Rainforest, Pond, Ocean, Antarctic, Tundra, Cave, City, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Savanna, Prairie, Freshwater, Marsh, Swamp, Intertidal Zone, and Coral Reef. You can also print out a monthly Biomes Calendar.
Biomes of the World from TeachersFirst.com. An on-line research project for middle school or advanced upper elementary students. Categories include: Coniferous Forest, Deciduous Forest, Rainforest, Fresh Water, Tundra, Ocean, Savannah, and Desert.
Biomes of the World from MBGnet. Click on Rainforest, Tundra, Taiga, Desert, Temperate, or Grasslands to see details of each Biome. See also Freshwater Ecosystems (Rivers & Streams, Ponds & Lakes, Wetlands), and Marine Ecosystems (Shorelines, Temperate Oceans, Tropical Oceans).
Canadian Atlas Online: Ecozones. Canada contains 15 terrestrial and 5 maritime ecozones, arranged here as follows: Arctic and Taiga, Pacific and Western Mountains, Central Plains, Boreal Shield, Mixedwood Plains, and Atlantic. Site is not very user-friendly for younger students.
Canada’s Ecozones. Canadian Biodiversity Website from Redpath Museum, McGill University.Canadian Patterns of Biodiversity: Canada’s Land and Species, Canada’s Species. Includes color photos, maps: Plants, Sponges, Molluscs, Insects, Crustaceans, Fungi, Fish, Amphibians and Reptiles, Mammals, Birds, Species at Risk.
Earth Floor. Site includes information on commonly found Biomes: Arctic Tundra Biome, Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest Biome, Desert Biome, Tropical Rainforest Biome, Tropical Savannah Biome, and Taiga Biome. A map shows the locations of these biomes in different colors.
Ecosystem Management. Parks Canada Environmental Conservation Programs. Within national parks, efforts are directed at maintaining ecosystems in as natural a state as possible. Menu: Ecosystem Integrity, Ecosystem Monitoring, Ecosystem Fragmentation, Ecosystem Restoration, Ecosystem Protection, and Ecosystem-Based Management. See also National Parks of Canada.
Ecosystems at the Montreal Biodome: Tropical Forest, Laurentian Forest, St. Lawrence Marine Ecosystem, and Polar World of the Arctic and Antarctic.
Introduction to Biomes. Biomes are the major regional groupings of plants and animals discernible at a global scale.
The Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Contents: Mount Everest, The Great Barrier Reef, The Grand Canyon, Victoria Falls, The Harbor of Rio de Janeiro, Paricutin Volcano, and The Northern Lights.
The Sierra Club: 21 Ecoregions. Tailored to the particular needs of each ecosystem, 21 regional plans aim to restore the ecological health of the planet through concrete local action.
Terrestrial Ecozones of Canada. The 15 Canadian Terrestrial Ecozones are: Taiga Cordillera, Boreal Cordillera, Pacific Maritime, Montane Cordillera, Boreal Plains, Taiga Plains, Prairie, Taiga Shield, Boreal Shield, Hudson Plains, Mixedwood Plains, Atlantic Maritime, Southern Arctic, Northern Arctic, and Arctic Cordillera. (Slow loading).
World Biomes. A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups which are adapted to that particular environment. Major biomes include Tundra, Deciduous Forest, Savanna, Taiga, Chaparral, Rainforest, Grasslands, Desert, and Alpine.
World Biomes.com. Covers 5 of the major world biomes: Aquatic, Desert, Forest, Grasslands, and Tundra. Site gives a definition of a biome, provides a Map of World Biomes, and a very informative FAQ section with answers to 20 Frequently Asked Questions.
The World’s Biomes. Over the past several decades, increasing human activity has rapidly destroyed or polluted many ecological habitats throughout the world. It is important to preserve all types of biomes as each houses many unique forms of life.
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Alpine. In Latin the word for ‘high mountain’ is ‘alpes’. Alpine biomes are found in the mountain regions all around the world. They are usually at an altitude of about 10,000 feet or more.
Alpine Climate. The Alpine biome is one of the coldest biomes in the world. It is so cold because of its high altitudes.
Alpine Links take you to other Websites about Alpine Biomes. (Pop-up ads).
Mountain Biome. Mountains cover about 20% of the Earth’s surface and are found on all continents and in all oceans.
Mountain Biomes. Diagram showing a mountain biome with vegetation and animals similar to global biomes but over much smaller areas.
Aquatic: The Wild Blue Yonder. Water is the common link among the five biomes and it makes up the largest part of the biosphere, covering nearly 75% of the Earth’s surface.
Aquatic Biomes. There are two types of aquatic biomes: marine regions and freshwater regions. Site includes Aquatic Biome Images.
Aquatic Wildlife. Photographs of Fish, Crabs, Mudskippers, and Star Fish.
Discover the Seashore. A Fascinating Place, The Intertidal: A Land between the Tides, An Incredible Wealth of Life, Find the Seashore Habitats, Investigate the Species of the Rocky Shore, Species of the Sandy Beach, and Species of the Sand Dunes, and more.
Freshwater Biome includes inland bodies of water called ponds, lakes, wetlands, rivers and streams.
Fresh Water from TeachersFirst.com. Interesting information about fresh water, e.g. “The place where fresh and salt-water meet are called estuaries” plus links to Web resources related to water biomes, e.g. Amazon River, Shorelines, Water: From Sky to Sea, Colorado River Report, Half Barrel Pond, All Along a River, Living Lakes, Freshwater Ecosystem, Life in a Pond, etc.
Freshwater Biome. The freshwater biome includes inland bodies of water called ponds, lakes, wetlands, rivers and streams.
Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers & Streams, Ponds & Lakes, Wetlands.
The Great Barrier Reef from the Australian Government, Department of the Environment and Heritage. The Great Barrier Reef provides habitats for many diverse forms of marine life. There are an estimated 1500 species of fish and more than 300 species of hard, reef-building corals. More than 4000 mollusc species and over 400 species of sponges have been identified.
Gulf of Maine: A Sea Beside a Sea. U.S. states and Canadian provinces that border the Gulf of Maine include Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Site also covers: Estuary: Where River Meets the Sea, Tidepool: Window into the Sea, and Beach: Ocean Battle Zone.
Marine Ecosystems. Shorelines, Temperate Oceans, Tropical Oceans.
Ocean AdVENTure: From Deep Sea to Deep Space. Learn about the fauna found in vents such as giant tube worms, extremophiles, and living fossils.
Ocean Biome. The ocean, the largest biome on Earth, covers more than 75% of the world’s surface.
Ocean Biome by Bonnie Glasgold. Lesson topics include: What is the Ocean Biome? What is sand? What are characteristics of the shore? What are tides, ocean currents, kinds of marine animal life? What is a coral reef?
Ocean in Motion. Characteristics of Currents, Tides, Waves (including Tsunamis). Habitats: Beaches, Coral Reefs, Estuaries, Hydrothermal Vents, Kelp Forests, Sea Grass Beds. Ocean Life: Marine Mammals, California Sea Lion, Green Sea Turtle. Ocean Water: Salinity, Pressure, Density, Temperature, Acoustics, Optics, and a Quick Quiz. Ocean Regions: Blue Water (includes Humans & the Environment), Littoral Zone, Ocean Floor. Research Vessels and Links to related resources.
St. Lawrence Marine Ecosystem at the Montreal Biodome. The fish-filled waters of this ecosystem, covering a total area of 1,620 m² and featuring a basin holding 2.5 million litres of “sea water”, are teeming with plankton, a food source that attracts many whales.
Tsunami FAQ from Pacific Tsunami Museum.
Tsunami Safety Rules from International Tsunami Information Center, Honolulu, HI. See also Tsunami Library – includes Overviews, Glossary, Great Waves, Historical Events, Online Documents, FAQs, Fact Sheets, Research Efforts, Tsunami Links, Videos Available for Order, Pacific Tsunami Warning Center Bulletins for current tsunami events.
U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. Includes photographs: Beluga, Bottlenose Dolphins, Common Dolphins, Dall’s Porpoise, Killer Whales, Pinnipeds, California Sea Lions, Seals, and more.
Chaparral. The chaparral biome is found in most of the continents – the west coast of the United States, the west coast of South America, the Cape Town area of South Africa, the western tip of Australia and the coastal areas of the Mediterranean. The chaparral biome has many different types of terrain.
Chaparral. Location, Weather: Chaparral is characterized as being very hot and dry, Plants: Most of the plants have large, hard leaves, which hold moisture, Animals, People and the Chaparral.
Shrubland Biome – Earth Observatory Experiments. Shrublands include regions such as chaparral, woodland and savanna. Shrublands are the areas that are located in west coastal regions between 30° and 40° North and South latitude.
Desert. Learn about Hot and Dry, and Cold Deserts. Most Hot and Dry Deserts are near the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn. Cold Deserts are near the Arctic part of the world.
Desert Biome. Deserts are areas that have experienced extreme droughts leaving large bodies of sand and rock. They occupy about 20% of the Earth’s surface and can be found on all continents.
Desert Biomes. Information on Arid, and Semi-Arid Desert, as well as Coastal and Cold Deserts. Includes Map of World Biomes, and Images of Desert Biomes.
The Desert Biome. Deserts have a varied species of animals that have adapted to the harsh climate of the desert. Topics covered: Climate, Animals, Plants, and Health Issues.
Desert Topics. What is a desert like? Types of deserts. What causes deserts? Deserts of the world. Desert plants. Desert animals. Desert at night. Plus desert links.
Deserts. Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth’s surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm per year.
Sahara Crosser’s Corner. Art Gallery – a glimpse of what the Sahara looks like.
Ecozones of Canada from Environment Canada. Canada has a mosaic of distinctive ecosystems, many of which are unique in the world. There are 20 major ecosystems or ecozones in Canada: 5 marine ecozones and 15 terrestrial ecozones.
Ecozones. Ecozone. Ecosystem. Ecosphere. What’s the difference between all these “ecowords”?
EcoZones, EcoRegions, and EcoDistricts. Canada is grouped according to broad ecological similarities into 15 EcoZones. The EcoZone framework is divided into a total of 194 EcoRegions (217 polygons). EcoRegions are further subdivided into EcoDistricts known also as Land Resource Areas. Each EcoDistrict is characterized by homogeneous biophysical and climatic conditions.
Grassland Biome. In North America grasslands are also called plains or prairies. In Asia they are called steppes. In South America: pampas, llanos, or cerrados. In Africa grasslands are called savannahs or velds, and in Australia they are called rangelands.
Grassland Biomes are unaltered areas of land where grass is the dominant plant life. Includes: Map of World Biomes, Images of Grassland Biomes, short description of categories: praries, steppe, and savanna.
Grasslands are characterized as lands dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees. There are two main divisions of grasslands: tropical grasslands, called savannas, and temperate grasslands.
Grasslands. Grassland biomes are large, rolling terrains of grasses, flowers and herbs. Information on Grassland Plants, Animals and Climate. Regions covered include: Steppes of Eurasia, North American Prairie, and the Pampas of South America.
Grasslands. The Evergreen Project. What are grasslands like? Types of grasslands, Grasslands of the world, Grasslands Plants, Grasslands Animals, and Links.
Savanna. A savanna is a rolling grassland, dotted with trees, which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome.
Boreal Forests, or Taiga represent the largest terrestial biome. Seasons are divided into short, moist, and moderately warm summers, and long, cold, dry winters. The length of the growing season in boreal forests is 130 days.
The Common Conifers of Southeast Alaska. Forest Facts. The temperate rain forest of the panhandle of Alaska is widely known for its lush vegetation. See also Plants, Animals, Fish and Birds of the Tongass National Forest in Alaska.
Coniferous Forest Biome – Earth Observatory Experiments. Between the tundra to the north and the deciduous forest to the south lies the large area of coniferous forest.
Coniferous Forest from TeachersFirst.com. “Coniferous means cone bearing.” Description of a coniferous forest plus links to Web resources on coniferous forest.
Deciduous Forest from TeachersFirst.com. Deciduous forests consist of trees that do not bear cones. Description of a deciduous forest plus links to Web resources on deciduous forest.
Discover Rainforests. Rainforest in Canada! Where? The Rainforest Recipe, What Does It Look Like? Rainforests around the World, It’s in the Leaves, Discover Rainforests Habitats, and more.
Evergreen coniferous forests, which are also called taiga, begin where tundra gives way to trees. Rainfall in this biome varies from 12 to 33 inches a year.
Forest Biome. Forests can be divided into five main categories: coniferous forest, deciduous forest, mixed leaved forest, Mediterranean forest, and tropical rainforests.
Forest Biomes. Information on Boreal, or Taiga biomes, and Temperate Deciduous Forest. Includes Images of Forest Biomes.
Ocean-Born Forests. This ecosystem stretches along the Pacific Coast from Oregon to Alaska; other temperate rain forests are found in several isolated areas throughout the world. What defines a rain forest quite simply is rain–lots of it.
Taiga. Where is the Taiga located? Taiga Facts. Taiga Plants. Taiga Animals. Taiga Gallery. Taiga Links.
Taiga. The taiga is the biome of the needleleaf forest. Taiga is the Russian word for forest and is the largest biome in the world. It stretches over Eurasia and North America.
Taiga Animal Printouts. Description of a taiga biome plus information and pictures about mammals, birds, and insects found in cold taiga biomes: Ant, Arctic Fox, Arctic Hare, Arctic Wolf, Badger, Bald Eagle, Beaver, Black Bear, Brown Bear, Canada Goose, Caribou, Dall Sheep, Deer, Earthworm, Ermine, Fox, Gray Wolf, Great Horned Owl, Husky, Lemming, Lynx, Malamute, Moose, Musk Ox, Muskrat, Red-Tailed Hawk, Reindeer, Scorpion, Short-Tailed Weasel, Snow Goose, Snowy Owl, Squirrel, Weasel, White-Tailed Deer, Wolf, Wolverine, and Woodland Caribou.
Temperate Deciduous Forest is a forest in which the leaves fall off the trees when the winter comes. This biome is found in three separate regions in the northern hemisphere.
Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome – Earth Observatory Experiments. Temperate deciduous forests are located in the mid-latitude areas which means that they are found between the polar regions and the tropics.
Temperate Forests. What is a Temperate Forest like? Where are they located? What colors are certain leaves in the fall? Autumn Leaf Scrapbook, Forest Animals, and Temperate Links.
Temperate Forests occur in eastern North America, northeastern Asia, and western and central Europe. Well-defined seasons with a distinct winter characterize this forest biome.
Exploring the Tropics. Contents include: Are All Tropical Forests, Rain Forests? Tropical Rain Forest Layers, Effects of Elevation on Climate and Vegetation, Plant Adaptations to the Tropical Rain Forest, Plant and Animal Interactions, Biological Diversity, Economic and Interesting Plants of the Tropics, People of the Tropical Rain Forest, Causes of Destruction, What You Can Do, and Learn More about Tropical Rain Forests.
How Rainforests Work from How Stuff Works. Contents include: What is a Rainforest? The Forest for the Trees, All Creatures, Great and Small, and Deforestation.
Passport to the Rainforest. GEOsystem: What are rainforests, and why are they found where they are? ECOsystem: A gallery of images and information on the trees, plants, birds, animals and insects of the rainforest. Researchers: Meet Brazilian, North American, and other scientists who study rainforests.
Rainforest. Two types of Rainforests: Temperate and Tropical. Where are Rainforests located? What are Rainforests like? Exploring the Tropical Rainforest. Tropical Plants. Tropical Animals. Rainforest Links.
Rainforest Biome – Earth Observatory Experiments. There are two types of rainforests, tropical and temperate. Tropical rainforests are found closer to the equator where it is warm. Temperate rainforests are found near the cooler coastal areas further north or south of the equator.
Tropical, or Rainforest. The rainforest is the most ecologically rich of the world’s biomes. Rainforests are generally found at the equatorial level of the planet. Daylight in the rainforest lasts for 12 hours. There is no winter.
Tropical Forest at the Montreal Biodome, a reproduction of a tropical rainforest in South America, measuring 2,600m² and populated by thousands of plants and animals, is the Biodome’s largest ecosystem.
Tropical Forests occur near the equator, within the area bounded by latitudes 23.5 ° N and 23.5 ° S. One of the major characteristics of tropical forests is their distinct seasonality: winter is absent, and only two seasons are present – rainy and dry.
Tropical Rainforest. The tropical rain forest is classified as Af meaning tropical forest The A is given to tropical climates that are moist for all months which have average temperatures above 18 ° Celsius. The f stands for sufficient precipitation for all months. The annual precipitation of a rain forest is greater than 1500 mm.
Tropical Rainforests from TeachersFirst.com. “Tropical rainforests are located along the equator.” Description of a tropical rainforest plus links to Web resources on tropical rainforests.
The Wild Habitat: The Rainforest. The rainforest is hot, humid, dark, and damp. It is home to many plants and animals. Learn more about the Baboon (Papio hamadryas), Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Orangutan (Pongo pgymaues), Tapir (Tapirus tapirus), and Tiger (Panthera tigris).
The Arctic. View a beautiful slide-show of large color photos of Arctic animals, Arctic scenery, and people. Contents include: Arctic Information, Arctic History & Culture, Arctic Fauna & Flora, Arctic Lifestyle, Arctic Today, plus Q&A about Arctic cruising and related cruise information.
Arctic Animals. Each printout includes labels for body parts, brief description of the animal where relevant, e.g. fur, skin, anatomy, diet, classification, etc. Arctic Animals covered: Alaskan Malamute, Arctic Fox, Arctic Hare, Arctic Tern, Arctic Wolf, Beluga Whale, Dall Sheep, Ermine, Greenland Shark, Harp Seal, Killer Whale (Orca), Lemming, Moose, Musk Ox, Narwhal, Northern Fur Seal, Polar Bear, Puffin, Reindeer, Short-tailed Weasel, Snow Goose, Snowy Owl, Walrus, Wolverine, Woodland Caribou, and Zooplankton.
Arctic Circle: Natural Resources. Articles about the Arctic for the more advanced students. Titles include: Conserving the Caribou, The ‘Lost’ Reindeer of Arctic Alaska, The Nuuk Declaration – September 16, 1993, with links to CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora & Fauna) a Working Group of the AEPS (Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy).
Arctic Theme Page. A rich resource of data, graphics, forecasts, and other information about the Arctic from research institutions around the world. Includes selected essays by Arctic experts. FAQ section includes such questions as: Where is the Arctic? Where is the North Pole? Why should we study the Arctic? How do conditions in the Arctic impact human life? Who lives in the Arctic? Site is sponsored by the Arctic Research Office of the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), U.S.A.
BrainPOP.com: Tundra. Watch a movie from Brain POP on the two types of Tundra: Arctic Tundra and Alpine Tundra. While waiting for the movie to load, play a quiz game to see how much you know about the Tundra Biome.
Canada’s Arctic. Canada’s Polar Environments: Inland Waters, Land, Marine Waters, Sky (Optical Phenomenon), Climate, Maps, Canada’s Polar Environments – Images: Ground Images, Satellite Images, Video, Images of Life: Freshwater Gallery, Marine Gallery, Terrestrial Gallery, and great related Links.
CANTTEX – Canadian Tundra and Taiga Experiment. The goal of CANTTEX is to increase our capabilty to detect and predict large-scale tundra and taiga ecosystem response to climate change.
Life in a Deep Freeze: How do animals survive the Arctic’s c-c-cold winters? from National Geographic Explorer (Student Magazine).
Northwest Territories Wildlife & Animals. Photos: Bison, Cariboo, Goldeneye, Grizzly Bear and Cubs, Lynx, Moose Calf, Musk Oxen, Peregrine Falcon Chick, Polar Bear, Raven, Red Squirrel, Seal, Sheep, Sicsic (Camouflaged), and more.
Tundra. Where is the Tundra Located? Tundra Facts. Tundra Plants. Tundra Animals. Tundra Gallery. Tundra Links.
Tundra. The tundra is a vast and treeless land. It is usually very cold, and the land is pretty stark. Tundra comes from the Finnish word “tuntuna”, which means a treeless plain. It has permafrost that never thaws.
Tundra. There are two types of tundra in the world, Arctic and Alpine. The Arctic Tundra is at the top of the world around the North Pole. The tops of tall cold mountains are Alpine Tundra. Contents: Animals, Vegetation, Climate and Location, and Health Issues.
Tundra from TeachersFirst.com. Brief description of a tundra biome plus links to Web resources, e.g. Virtual Fieldtrip to Antarctica, CyberZoo: Tundra Biome, and Enchanted Learning: Tundra.
Tundra: The Not-So Barren Land. Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes.
The Tundra. The tundra is the simplest biome in terms of species composition and food chains.
Tundra Animal Printouts. Animals include: Arctic Fox, Arctic Hare, Arctic Tern, Arctic Wolf, Bighorn Sheep, Caribou, Dall Sheep, Ermine, Grasshopper, Hare, Lemming, Moose, Mosquito, Musk Ox, Polar Bear, Quoll, Reindeer, Short-Tailed Weasel, Snow Goose, Snowy Owl, Squirrel, Wolf, Wolverine, Woodland Caribou, and Woolly Rhinocerous.
Tundra Biome. The winters in the tundra can be as low as -57 degrees Celsius (-126 degrees F).
Tundra Biome – Earth Observatory Experiments. The tundra is the coldest of the biomes. It also receives low amounts of precipitation, making the tundra similar to a desert. Tundra is found in the regions just below the ice caps of the Arctic, extending across North America, to Europe, and Siberia in Asia.
Tundra Biomes. Tundra, the “ice desert”, “frozen prairie”, the cold plains of the Far North get their name from the Finnish word “tunturia”, which means barren or treeless land. Information on Arctic Tundra and Alpine Tundra. Includes Images of Tundra Biomes.
Tundra-Cam. From Institute of Arctic & Alpine Research (INSTAAR). Tundra-Cam is a LIVE and INTERACTIVE webcam located at an elevation of 11,600 feet in the Colorado Front Range in U.S.A. The camera is above timberline on Niwot Ridge, about 25 miles west of Boulder. The peaks at the head of the ridge form the Continental Divide.
Wild Arctic Activities. Site includes mazes, puzzles, games and activities about the Arctic. Contents: Vocabulary, Arctic Adaptations, Polar Profiles, Arctic Adventure Maze, Arctic Explorers Activity, Land of Ice Activity, Cultural Carvings Activity, Crossword Fun, Polar Picture Puzzle, Sledge for Survival Activity, and Arctic Word Search.
List of birds and animals include:
Tundra Swan 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Wolverine 1, 2
American Tree Sparrow 1, 2, 3, 4
Brown Lemming 1, 2
Lapland Longspur 1, 2 breeding male, 3 breeding female
Semi-palmated Plover 1, 2, 3
Snow Bunting 1, 2, 3
Gyrfalcon 1, 2, 3
Wolf 1, 2 Scroll down, click on paw to hear wolf howl, and
Canada Goose 1 with song clip, 3, 4.