Overview Of Wireless Networks Evolution


Recently, there is a substantial evolution of mobile usage and traffic [3], So the wireless network should design new architectures adopting the advances in cloud computing, Mobile wireless has evolved over the years from Zero Generation (0G), First Generation (1G), Second Generation (2G), Third Generation (3G), until Fourth Generation (4G LTE) technology are being deployed with the performance and efficiency object to use Quality of Service (QoS).

Internet of Things (IoT) could influence the number of connected devices to grow up to 50 billion by 2020. Therefore, LTE won’t be able to endure the requirement of the new era which need higher data rates, lower latencies, higher capacities, improved energy efficiency, and reliable ubiquitous connectivity. Fifth Generation (5G) wireless communications, expected to satisfy these requirements. The progression of 5G commitment by renewal in technical terms where there is major advancement in physical and MAC layer technologies such as mm-wave spectrum, small cells, SDMA.

On the other hand, 5G will also support business novelty for example, Manufacturing, Automotive, eHealth, Vitality and Media and Entertainment. This will increase the incomes by using 5G’s remarkable network and service capabilities. This paper reviews the state art of the researches in 5G, specifically, to explore the required technologies, new architectures, and advancements to develop 5G. In addition, it will demonstrate some of the challenges, limitations, towards 5G and how to solve them. The review focus on some important area like big data and Mobile Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, and Device to Device communication. The rest of this paper is organized as follows, the second section discuss the related work toward 5G. Section three discuss the problems, challenges and solutions and present their solutions. lastly, display the conclusion.

Related Work

The main driver of the stage for next significant cellular evolution towards 5G, is the breakthrough of wireless connectivity, increase of multimedia and the propagation of smart devices. Next generation 5G wireless systems are committed a multiplied increase in data rate, connectivity and QoS, which support novel applications like IoT, smart grids and IoV and FinTech. The authors discuss a new architectural paradigm shift of 5G which is connected to the change in design by moving from BS centric cellular into device centric topology, by introducing small radio waves, small antenna size, beamforming in analog and digital domain, smart antennas, cloud and heterogeneous radio access network (RAN), heterogeneous approach (HetNets).

A new physical channel model should include LOS/NLOS, novel antenna design, beamforming and massive MIMO. The new models require an efficient MAC layer protocols and multiplexing schemes to efficiently upholding the new physical characteristics. The authors highlight the new QoS, Quality of Experience (QoE), since user experience is expected to be offered by 5G, and Self-Organizing Network (SON) features, associated with the evolution of 5G networks. Some authors present a comprehensive and thorough overview of the ten key enabling technologies that enable the 5G and how these technologies assist the implementation of 5G requirements. Some of these significance technologies, which will be discussed in the next section, are big data and mobile cloud computing, Internet of things (IoT) and Device-to-Device Communications (D2D). The authors investigate the limitations, strengths and open issues that need to find solutions, they also highlight some of the proposed solutions. According to their prediction, they argue that the 5G standards will be accomplished in the early years of next decade and initiation of the commercial services would be at 2020.

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The researchers draw a roadmap for the success of 5G by using a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (Fuzzy AHP) which is a structured method for dealing with compound decisions to investigate and prioritize the factors that will affect the commercial success of deployment of 5G networks, technical, social and economic. Fuzzy AHP depends on criteria which are, in this model, Performance, Business, acceptance, flexibility and technology. These criteria have analyzed to sub-criteria. In this research the analysis of the reference model provides and show the importance of performance (low latency, high data rates and reliability) and cost reduction and new market opportunities. The researchers claim that the results of this study can be a guideline for 5G networks designers. 3. 5G Problems and Solutions In this section, problems and solutions of three of the enabling technologies for wireless networks 5G are demonstrated as follows, big data and mobile cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), device-to-device Communications (D2D), each of these technologies have their challenges.

Big data and mobile cloud computing

The exponentially rising in data chache specifically with the need to download huge files, stream HD-videos or programs give rise to the importance of cloud storage as part of 5G wireless network. Mobile cloud computing become an imperative part o 5G due to the need of higher throughput and data storage. Big data reveal the advantage of cloud computing including low cost, efficiency and scalability. In addition, the big data analytics become more efficient according to the control brought by WSDN and software-defined switching. Computation offloading is a process that permits the cloud or remote server to share part of the computational responsibility. Another noteworthy technique for 5G cloud computing is the mobile edge computing (MEC), which offers the benefits of low latency and high bandwidth at the edge of RAN. Despite of, the enhancement of mobile cloud computing, there is some challenges as follows.

Limited Network Resource

The fair sharing of network resources by users and service provider is one of the main issues. Users may face problems in change networks when travelling to other countries, as using multiple network standards around the world. With the great developing in hacking techniques attacking the Internet on the world, data security is another critical issue. This concern must be handled by researchers before mobile cloud computing become a standard in 5G network to deliver a secure environment.

Transmission delays

The transmission delay in wide area network (WAN), which caused by signaling and traffic congestion in a highly crowded network architecture, is another issue in current mobile cloud computing. Some of the proposed solutions are, the workload of WAN must be isolated and released to smaller networks with minimize coverage area, also, using small cell base station, to gain fast access to cloud serve, provide faster processing and low network latency.

Internet of Things (IoT)

Internet of things is the network of physical devices embedded with hardware, software, sensors, actuators and property that allowed these items to exchange information. Those devices can be monitored and controlled. An example of those devices could be drones, autonomous cars, wearable smart, health monitors. Exchanging data between those devices depends mostly on Internet by sending sensors data to servers. The data aggregated and analyzed to produce knowledge that build smart systems like smart cities. The huge number of IoT devices and applications in addition to their connections make them an important part and a driver of the 5G networks. IoT face many challenges, some of them are listed below.

Intelligent processing and storage

In IoT systems, sensors collect data while backend servers are responsible for processing this data and convert it to actionable knowledge and intelligence. With the increasing of this data, the complexity as well as increase. A solution of this problem could be in using cloud computing servers for processing which provide a facility of provisioning by demand. In this case, another challenge arises, IoT systems need a customization of the interface of cloud computing services to be compatible with the IoT sensors. Fog computing also is another approach which can be used to ease of the computational load and reduce latency by moving the computing to the edge of the network instead of cloud servers. Dimensionality reduction algorithms like principal component analysis (PCA) could be used to reduce redundant data of sensors and enhance computation efficiency.

Interoperability and standardization

Most of the sensors of IoT devices have different capabilities and requirements, so they need to deploy their own interfaces and standards for communications with other servers and nodes. This give rise to inconsistency when those sensors are used simultaneously. A suggested solution could be by unifying and standardizing the interface of cloud servers to provide interoperability between cloud services.

Low latency

The significance of IoT applications come from their mission critical which need to execute in real time such as industrial process monitoring, since the delay could negatively affect a serious task, so these applications need ultra-low latency. This problem could be addressed by a blend of diverse technologies such as new radio access techniques and wireless software-defined network (WSDN).

Device-to-Device Communications (D2D)

In device-to-device communications, a direct connection between users that close to each other is exploited to enhance performance and reduce latency, without relying on the base station (BS) to establish a connection. D2D face number of challenges as explained below.

Spectrum Sharing with Cellular Systems

At present D2D work underlying the cellular network, this may cause interference to the current cellular network. To avoid interference, it is important to suggest methods for enhanced spectrum sharing, resource allocation and power control which will optimize performance. Some authors propose a method for admission control based on QoS to realize spectrum allocation.

Interference management

Since, there is no BS in the scenario of D2D communication, the interference management, could be a matter. To moderate this matter, there is many proposed solutions such as, resource pooling, admission control and power allocation, relay selection and game theoretic techniques like non-cooperative game and bargaining can be used to moderate the interference. Conclusion The enormously increasing in wireless network every year, lead to the requirements of higher data rates, lower latencies, higher capacities, improved energy efficiency, increased reliability depending on virtualization and edge computing, and robust pervasive connectivity. Subsequently, there is a need to evolve toward 5G. which could be enabled by many new technologies. This paper reviews the state art of the researches in 5G, to explore technologies, new architectures, and advancements to develop 5G. In addition, it demonstrates some of the challenges, limitations, towards 5G and how to solve them, focusing on some of these technologies, like big data and Mobile Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, and Device to Device communication. For future work, a new cellular network architecture should be designed and implement to cover the new era requirement with adopting 5G standards.