This work explores human centered computing. It is an aspect of computing that explores the entire spectrum of interactions that occur between human beings and computing devices. In line with this regard, the survey paper analyses previous works that have been undertaken in this area of study by other scholars. In this regard, the paper acknowledges the contribution of other scholars on the topic of discussion, through in-text citations and a bibliography page that at the last page of the work.
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The work explores all aspects of human centered computing and presents them systematically, with regard to the sources of information employed. In line with this focus, the pear explores human computer interaction (HCI), visualization, interaction designs, ubiquitous and mobile computing, interaction design, accessibility, collaborative and social computing. Additionally, the paper is comprised of eight pages.
Human computer interaction was limited to only professional until the late 1970s. There were minimal advances in the field of information technology and as a result, computing devices were not very compatible with the needs of the users. However, an era of technological boom in the 1990s, gave rise to many technological innovations that are user oriented. With this regard, it is notable that devices whose central focus is user oriented were given priority. In line with this focus, now there are ubiquitous computing devices whose usability are remarkable and execute instructions with remarkable ease. Such computing devices have been employed in various human activates such as marketing, security, learning, health care, banking and many other spheres of human activities (Lee & Nass, 2003). With this respect, additional platforms for interaction in social contexts have emerged.
The role of computing in the human progress is very significant. Evidently, commuting touches almost every aspect of human activates. In line with this regard, human centered computing explores the entire spectrum embodying the human computing interaction. Further, it illustrates the contribution of computing to information management, in various aspects of human activities.
According to Jacko, (2012) human centered computing is an a field, fast gaining momentum, that concerns itself with designing and implementation of computing systems, whose core function is to support activities that are in line with human progress. The field of computing seeks to provide a framework for integration of human sciences and computer science in a manner that promotes the progress of human activities. In line with this regard, the field of study seeks to integrate ubiquitous computing with human computer interaction and signal processing.
In line with this focus, personal, cultural and social contexts under which the systems are deplored are under significant consideration. Additionally, human centered computing purpose to provide a platform, upon which, existing disciplines in academic study can be discussed, analyzed or further studied. Human centered computing, seeks to provide for new and advanced methodologies with a human focus (Pantic & Rothkrantz, 2003). With this respect, human centered computing designs and models designs and computing systems that support and enrich human existence.
Human computer interaction
Human centered computing is aimed at enhancing human performance in day to day activities. Additionally, human centered computing plays a very crucial role in mediating human interactions, between non human systems, and interactions that take place between the humans themselves. Further, human centered computing has given rise to devices whose simplicity in interaction with human beings is almost unnoticeable. There are clear cut differences in complexity of user-device interaction, between the existing human centered computing devices of this and the past generations (Rogers, Sharp & Preece, 2011).
In line with this regard, human interface devices have been modified to provide different methods of interaction between the devices and the users. Compatibility with user needs has been enhanced with the incorporation of the vision, audio and touches devices that characterize the ubiquitous computing devices fast gaining momentum in the technological environment. With respect to simplicity in use, most ubiquitous devices employ simple to use devices such as keyboards, screen panels, pen-based input and mice.
The input devices enable the user to interact with the devices with remarkable ease (Sebe, 2010). Additionally, there are audition devices that can feed ubiquitous devices with information directly from the human voice. This marks shift from dependency on the physical presence of a user in order to interact with a device.
The technical and founding focus of human centered computing are usability. The concept of usability or compatibility to human needs gives human centered computing a clear identity in the field of computing. Notably, the aspect of human centeredness in computing is fast gaining momentum in computer science and other developments in technology. Central focus in innovations is being given to usability (Sebe, 2010).
The field of human centered computing is redefining computing boundaries at all levels. With this regard, focus has shifted from applications that foster personal productivity to envision visualization, accessibility, collaborativeness, design, information system and even psychology (Lee & Nass, 2003).
Human centered computing enables human to present information in a form that is both easily understandable and attractive. In line with this regard, human center computing provides for ways of presenting information in a form that is both easily palatable and cost efficient. With this respect, visualization in human centered computing provides for visual designs or models that relay information in its simplest forms (Rogers, Sharp & Preece, 2011).
Visualization in human center computing embodies models such as graphs, images and charts, whose design, appearance and compatibility, makes it easier for analysis, interpretational and comparison of information. For instance in intelligence marketing, human centered computing models that enhance visualization are extensively used, as they aid in decision making and strategic planning.
Interaction design is the combination of interaction strategies that enable human beings to utilize computing systems to their benefit. In line with this regard, interaction designs provides for activities, requirements and processes that enable human being to manipulate computing systems to their advantage (Sebe, 2010).
Additionally, computing designs takes into account the needs of the human user, the tasks that the computing system is capable of, that targets of the user, the available scenarios for execution of instructions that aid in realization of the targets and possibilities of positive outcomes. Further, interaction designs are user oriented. In line with this focus, the models define who the user ought to be, what the user can or cannot achieve with the computing systems, and how to achieve their targets (Rogers, Sharp & Preece, 2011).
Interaction design in human centered computing provides for integration of user needs and computing alternatives that aid in realization of the user needs. In line with this focus, human centered computing provides participatory designs that encourage appropriate input mechanisms for the user and effective processing of the inputs, to enable the user to achieve goals (Sebe, 2010).
Human centered computing and accessibility
The technological boom period of the 1990s, fast tracked information access, sharing and above all, aspects of human interaction on computing platforms. In line with this regard, a new wave of portable computing systems, is fast gaining momentum, whereby, access to information has been made considerably easy due to accessibility of computing gadgets. In a wide range of human interactions, availability of computing gadgets have remarkably contributed to easier production, retrieval, sharing, annotation, content analysis and organization of information (Jaimes, Gatica-Perez, Sebe & Huang, 2007).
For instance, health centered computing gave rise to health informatics that have enabled health practitioners to safely and effectively store, retrieve and manage health care information. Additionally, human computing technology gave rise to intelligence marketing tools that enables business people to manage, share and utilize information to achieve optimization.
Collaborative a social computing
Collaborative and social computing provides for a network of groupware systems that support sharing and communication within social software systems. In line with this regard, collaborative and social systems provide for applications and other technologies with collaborative virtual environments that support social information sharing, retrieval and analysis. Additionally, the social computing technology enable people to network, share, communicate, coordinate collaborate with other peoples at anytime and in any place (Rogers, Sharp & Preece, 2011). In this respect, collaborative and social computing is a very significant aspect of human centered computing that enables human beings to connect on a virtual platform.
Further, collaborative and social computing provides for social networking tools that enable users to gather and share information across virtual social networks. Notably, Social computing networks are informative platforms that encourage information sharing in a manner that promotes innovation in various sectors of human activities (Lee & Nass, 2003, April). Additionally, social computing networks enhance human interactions by bringing together people from various places of the world on a virtual platform.
In line with this regard, the field of human centered computing provides platforms for undertaking various human activities such as marketing, education and social interactions. Therefore, collaborative and social computing brings together people from various backgrounds and provides a platform for social networking and interactive approaches, with regard to the need s of the users (Pantic & Rothkrantz, 2003).
Ubiquitous and mobile computing
Advancements in the fields of computing technology significantly contribute to the availability of computing devices everywhere across the globe. In line with this regard, human centered computing receives a massive boost by the universally and abundantly abundant computing devices that promote human progress. Human activities such as transport, communication, trade, marketing and education are remarkably palatable by masses due to availability if technological gadgets that support them. In line with this focus, the contribution of mobile computing to advancement of human centered computing is indispensable. The availability of mobile computing devices such as the mobile phones supports interactions that enable the realization of user needs (Rogers, Sharp & Preece, 2011).
Additionally, ubiquitous computing gives rise to digital tools that enable human beings to communicate in different ways. The global aspect of ubiquitous computing promotes advantageous use of geographical and temporal spaces variably. Further, ubiquitous computing promotes aspects of creation of knowledge, dissemination of information and storage of data in a manner that enhances various human activities. Additionally, this aspect of computing embodies a paradigms shift from digital desktops and personal computers (PC) to portable devices that relay information with comparatively greater efficiency.
Ubiquitous computing marks progress in human centered computing, whereby, mobile electronic devices can easily relate to human beings on human terms. Further, it marks progress that involves computing devices that seemingly construct theories of the human mind and better understand human social context (Pantic & Rothkrantz, 2003). However, this is an uphill task considering the amount of resources that will be required to design devices whose input mechanism are compatible with human terms and require less effort from human beings in collecting, analyzing and interpreting information.
Human related computing is primarily founded on the principal focus of developing management systems whose central focus is the human user. Human centered computing comprises of various computing aspects, whose interactions result into progress in human activities. Recent progresses in technological process have market transition from desktops and personal computers to mobile devices that have greater efficiency in networking, sharing and programming (Pantic & Rothkrantz, 2003). In line with the focus, advancements in ubiquitous technology have given rise to devices that are more conversant with human requirements.
It is important to note that as a result of advancements in human centered computing, is less concerned with specialty in computer science. On the contrary, social computing, accessibility, organizational computing have all been realized by shift of focus in computing. A very wide spectrum of human related goals has been realized by human centered computing.
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Lee, K. M., & Nass, C. (2003, April). Designing social presence of social actors in human computer interaction. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 289-296). ACM.
Pantic, M., & Rothkrantz, L. J. (2003). Toward an affect-sensitive multimodal human-computer interaction. Proceedings of the IEEE, 91(9), 1370-1390.
Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., & Preece, J. (2011). Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction. John Wiley & Sons.
Sebe, N. (2010). Human-centered computing. In Handbook of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments (pp. 349-370). Springer US.