Modern Computer Technologies for Autism
Pages: 21, Word count: 4862
Rewriting Possibility: 97% (excellent)
Autism is a permanent developmental disability that influences and affects how an individual communicates, relates and lives with other people. It affects the capability of the affected individual in making sense of his immediate world. From a scientific point of view, it is a neurological disorder that affects the growth of an infant. It comes in both mild and severe conditions. Such conditions indicate that even if all individuals having autism share similar difficulties, the conditions affect each differently.
Researchers have stepped further in deep technological research in order to find interventions to the menace. This paper review work related to autism in the five top computer domains. The fields include; Robotics, Application & Devices in Autistic Care, Virtual environment sensors & Mobile sensors, and interactive gaming modules used in the current world. This research paper has compared the technological trends in Autism between third world countries and developing countries.
Autism begins in infancy and can be described as a permanent weakening disability (40). It affects the ability of the affected person to learn, communicate or even interact with peers (41). The disorder has both mild and severe characteristics that vary in regard to individual behavioral characteristics (42). The disease spectrum of Autism is very diverse and, therefore, requires keen observation and study of characteristics portrayed (11).
Affected individuals have limited communication capability and skills (43). They are not in a position to follow simple instructions given (70), often they repeat words when talking. Also, children have abnormal speech production during any conversation and cannot maintain eye contain or sustain the conversation (44). Lastly, they have no ability to use facial expressions or other spoken language techniques in an interview (45).
Additionally, victims are anti-social and prefer living alone (46). This is influenced by the fact that they have poor eye contact and lack understanding of humanity existences (47). Similarly, individuals who suffer from Autism (58) have small sensory integration giving them either hyper or hypo sensitive senses to some environments (48). They may react to sound, light, and smell or touch differently (23).
Mild cases of autism results to poor language and social skills, while, on the other hand, severe forms exhibit total detachment from other colleagues, poor imitation skills, and self-injurious behaviors (49). In most children, Autism influences their sensitive sensory behaviors, motor development, communication and social characteristics (1).
Despite the knowledge of features, signs, and symptoms, no medicine have ever been discovered to treat autism (50). Medical practitioners have always assured quick adaptation and recovery from autism in young children (45). The only required technique is improvement guidance and special care to protect the victims from self-harm (51). Care gives should work to help the victims adopt socially acceptable behaviors, good mental health, and acceptable personality (52).
According to WHO, United States of America have the highest number of autism patients worldwide (78). The disease became recognized as a national disaster in the year 1980. Community and citizens from various Asian countries (59) and China began plotting awareness about the disorder in the late 1980s (2). Data collected by WHO indicates autism prevalence is at 11.8 per every 10000 people while (53), on the other hand, the spectrum conditions of autism are at 26.6 per every 10,000 individuals (80).
On the contrary, Japan has a higher autism spectrum of 13 per every 10,000 persons (54), this proves the point that even the disease is present in already developed countries such as America and Asia (3). Ignorance have led to increased autism cases in India due to illiteracy among the grassroots communities (4). They just rely on the myth that the signs associated with the disorder will end with time (55). Third world countries are also affected by the lack of proper medical infrastructures for diagnosis and treatment of the disease (15).
Overview of Statistical Analysis of Autism
The Autism Society indicates that; according to research done by the center for disease control and prevention in the year 2014, one percent of the total world population carry autism spectrum disorders (56). Additionally, it indicates that United States have an estimate of one out of every sixty-eight births have autism (6). In 2000, the prevalence of autism in united states increased by one hundred and nine point four in children. This has led to a rise in autism service costs for United States citizens from two hundred and thirty-six million dollars to two hundred and sixty-two million dollars annually (67).
On the same, statistics indicates that Autism adult services have a high charge cost that children. They costs for adults are one hundred and ninety-six as compared to sixty-six billion dollars in children (60). The society, therefore, predicts that in the next ten years, the annual expenditure on autism will have raised to four hundred billion dollars (57). Over the lifespan on human development (18), each person may spend not less than two point four million due to autism as compared to one point four million to an ordinary person (48).
Lastly, it takes more than eight thousand six hundred dollars to educate a student affected by autism (61). Though thirty-five percent of pupils diagnosed with autism do not have postgraduate education nor a job (79).
From the statistics, it’s evident that both developed and developing countries are still struggling to lower the menace (8). To have a more insight on the developments made to cab the vice (62), it was important to review and evaluate some of the developments made (9). Primary focus is directed on latest technological advancements put in place to cure and protect children suffering from autism (27).The 2006 government reports in the United States indicates that lifelong care expenditures may be reduced by sixty-seven percent if interventions and early diagnosis strategies are put in place(30).
Applied Modern Technologies.
Techniques and technologies applied in this field include Application & Devices in Autistic care, Virtual Environment, software, interactive gaming modules, robotics and sensors and mobile sensors (78).
Application & Devices in Autism care are simple computers supported programs that enable first and efficient environmental interaction by children faced with autism (12). Virtual environments are an innovative, eye-catching technology that works in real time and boosts interaction between a child and the immediate surroundings (7).
A Software is computer enabled programmes that enable real-time interaction between a child and his environment; they perform similarly with applications and devices (23). On the other hand, interactive gaming modules are computer enabled games that promote children attentiveness and response to commands (13). Robots are humanoid machinery that engages children with autism as a way of learning social skills. Lastly sensors are devices used for monitoring children with autism behavior and characteristics (9).
Virtual environments have been used in Autism conditions to assist introverted children or adults (19). Virtual environments can be classified as either visual pictures showcases or non-visual showcases (16). A good example of virtual environments is haptic and sound related messages that can be used to inform patients or clients their location in a given space or environment (33).
According to Moreira de Costa et al,, virtual environmental can be used for cognitive rehabilitation of Autism patients (27).
Additionally, Yufang Cheng also presented research on the importance of virtual environments on victims having avatar emotions representations (20). The collaborative virtual environment is a great asset for people with autism (34). From the results achieved, it was clear that people with autism that had problems in communication responded positively and regularly communicated through the collaborative virtual environment (11).
Video modeling has also proved to be a crucial part in modeling children. It has played a major role in impacting social skills in children with Autism during teaching (78). Video modeling have been offering experimental platforms to text children with autism ability to concentrate in real life situations. It achieves its goals through impacting social cues on developing children who are suffering from autism (81).
Variously, Konstantinidis designed a framework that applied the semi-virtual environment strategy for enhancing education in children suffering from autism (12). The framework had the capability of providing sharing emotions and demonstrating understanding (42). Virtual environment has the ability of engaging and quantifying the physiological nature of autism’s victims to concentrate in a given situation. They also have the capacity to improve individualism in autism victims as a way of boosting social communication skills (66).
A researcher named Yiyu Cai et al. developed and designed a virtual dolphinarium to help autism. The dolphinarium was intended to help children with autism learn nonverbal skills in communicating (45).
Robotics and Virtual Reality Tools
In the modern world, robots have been designed to solve many problems intelligently (68). According to Fasel, Ian et. Al motivation learning among autism children can be achieved through interactive learning (69) that can only be made possible through robots contingency learning (13). Robotic learning promotes development and social learning in toddlers and infants with or without any developmental challenges (76).
Infant’s development is influenced by interactive sessions with caregivers; similarly interaction of children with autism with preprogrammed (24) robots would ensure maximum development and achievement of social instructiveness in such children (34). Robots help in changing children behaviors through the behavior modeling techniques pre-coded in the robot (17). Additionally, robots have been used in performing therapeutic massages (71) on children that need of joints attentions (21). The robot is set in a way that it maintains the goal-oriented behavior interaction between the children and the environment thereby promoting active learning in children with autism (75).
In reference to Picard, R. W robots have the capability of learning from people (67) and helping other individuals learn emotionally intelligent skills as a way of improving (68) and empowering autism children with non-verbal learning impairments (59). On the other hand, Ma’sum developed an intuitively controlled system that promotes gesture use in children with autism (16). The robot acts as a human tutor and engages the children in imitative gesturing as a way of building communication (23). Lastly, Qidwai, U. et al. conducted as in-depth research on fascinating robots that parents and caregivers can use as a way of offering therapeutic activities to children with autism (32).
Software Devices and Application in Autism Care
Software devices and application can be desktop based or web based. Software applications can assist children in autism in learning (14). Computer tools help in emotion recognition and improving social skills. Webcams are also used in monitoring and evaluating performance of children with Autism (3).
Similarly, app design project, (Fletcher-Watson, Pain, Hammond, Humphry ; McConachie, 2014) the research team further collaborated in knowledge exchange activities (35). With the app developer who licensed the finished product and released it to the market (39). An essential element of this enlightening process was the discussions around (67).
Which features the developers wanted to change in order to make the app consumer-ready and which we felt it was not possible to change without impairing its therapeutic potential?(38). For example, changing the menu design to create a better interface for parent users was fine, but adapting the reward animations to fit with the house style of the developer was not (22).
They mainly focus on color recognition and detection thereby improving children reasoning and decision-making skills (61). Additionally, computer software have been found to promote individualism (34); it boosts identity, personal choices and roles of involved building individual personality (66).
Lastly, Computer software’s have also build in systems that promote communication skills and instructiveness by autism affected children (52). The software can be used on tablets, phones, and desktops, they are portable therefore caregivers and teachers can carry the whenever they move (45).
Interactive Gaming Modules
Gaming modules have been for long used in engaging children interactive nature (19). According to Makino, T et al., gaming modules stimulated children understanding among their peers (39). Gaming has also involved children in interactive commands where the child must be attentive to win the game (71).
Such gaming plays the role of developing strength and understanding among autism children (77). Gaming modules have the ability to improve performance modalities of the users (74). They help children in inhibition, initiative, and planning as a way of boosting personal development (78).
Gaming improves autism victims’ expressiveness and identity in adults and children suffering from Autism (73). A research named Rahman, M. M developed a computer enabled game that was mainly intended to increase intelligibility in children suffering from speechlessness (14).
The game was reviewed by the Autism Welfare Foundation and declared crucial in improving communication skills in children suffering from Autism (3). Autism children have the inability in actualizing the importance of things in life, e.g. Money (79). In that case, Hassan, AZ et al. developed the money concept gaming that aimed at improving the need of children understanding the time value of funding (45).
Lastly, gaming modules are important life booster in children development as they help in building children personality behavior (67) and individualization to help the affected child fit in with other peers (81).
Sensors and Mobile Sensors
Sensors are electronic gadgets that locate changes and occasions happening due to temperature or environmental change (10). A good example of sensors includes the thermometers used in measuring the changes in children having mental disorders (69). Minnen, D a research in the field of human development (33), designed an on-body sensor aiming at censoring and recording human activities such as gestures (67). The sensors play a significant role in observing daily behaviors of children suffering from autism (66).
Records from the sensors are then used by parents and medical practitioners in defining intervention to children affected in relationship to their characteristics (76).Leijdelkkers, P. et al. designed a mobile application known as “CaptureMyEmotion” that enabled autistic children to take videos, sounds and photos (12).
The application used wireless sensors (45) and thereby giving children involved time to comment (56) on the emotions and time of capture of every picture (62). The application has been a better interaction platform between children with autism and their immediate environment (80).
The world is currently focusing more research and resources towards care, cure and protection of autistic children (32). Though, as time goes more and more children are living with distress and failed future in the grassroots (72). The virtual technology has brought up the 7D, mobile technologies, and virtual environments to help cab the Menace (5).
Community empowerment and capacity building are also vital components in eradicating the disease (63). From the above review, it clear that much have been done in improving life for children suffering from autism (31). Though, much more energy and effort and creativity are needed to have a smooth and free flowing direction in reducing the autism prevalence (49).
The appropriate response will depend on the stated goals of the technology and its potential uses (28). Though the technology has grown, simple and affordable applications should be introduced to cater for parents who are sinking in poverty (29). It is reasonable to expect such technologies to provide a rigorous (66) evidence base to support such a bold therapeutic claim (27).
On the other hand games that offer enjoyable activities to supplement classroom learning of, for example (64), algebra or spelling might not require such formal evaluation (26). In these cases, consumers are much more in need of ways to distinguish between software (or hardware) options that superficially seem to do the same thing (65). The focus here must be on providing rapidly available and widely accessible information of relevance to the user community (55).
Major problems that may be experienced during implementation of these advanced technologies includes lack of awareness (25). Caregivers, parents, and teachers must be educated with the available tools (36) or techniques that can help cure or protect victims suffering from autism (9). Most developing nations are suffering from medical infrastructural unavailability (21). The government must take charge in improving infrastructure and filling the gaps to ensuring reduced and controlled spread of autism conditions (69).
Lastly, educational environments should be revolutionized (37) to incorporate all the technologies in providing maximum improvements to all children suspected of having autism characteristics (22). Teachers must offer equal care to every child regardless of their race, gender or social class (23).
- Anwar, M. Rahman, S. Ferdous, S. Anik, and S. Ahmed, “A computer game based approach for increasing fluency in the speech of the autistic children,” in Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2011 11th IEEE International Conference on, July 2011, pp. 17–18.
- Hassan, B. Zahed, F. Zohora, J. Moosa, T. Salam, M. Rahman, H. Ferdous, and S. Ahmed, “Developing the concept of money by interactive computer games for autistic children,” in Multimedia (ISM), 2011 IEEE International Symposium on, Dec 2011, pp. 559– 564.
- Sula, E. Spaho, K. Matsuo, L. Barolli, R. Miho, and F. Xhafa, “A smart environment and heuristic diagnostic teaching principlebased system for supporting children with autism during learning,” in Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on, May 2014, pp. 31–36.
- Vullamparthi, S. Nelaturu, D. Mallaya, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Assistive learning for children with autism using augmented reality,” in Technology for Education (T4E), 2013 IEEE Fifth International Conference on, Dec 2013, pp. 43–46.
- A.Woodcock and A.Woolner, “Facilitating communication, teaching and learning in children with an asd: Project spectrum,” in Development and Learning, 2007. ICDL 2007. IEEE 6th International Conference on, July 2007, pp. 59–63.
- Alvseike H, Bronnick K. Feasibility of the iPad as a hub for smart house technology in the elderly; effects of cognition, self-efficacy, and technology experience. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2012;5:299-306.
- Abirached, Y. Zhang, J. Aggarwal, B. Tamersoy, T. Fernandes, J. Miranda, and V. Orvalho, “Improving communication skills of children with asds through interaction with virtual characters,” in Serious Games and Applications for Health (SeGAH), 2011 IEEE 1st International Conference on, Nov 2011, pp. 1–4.
- Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D. ; Charman, T. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in south thames: The special needs and autism project (snap) Lancet 368(9531): 210- 215.
- Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, and T. A. DeFanti, “Surroundscreen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH ’93), pp. 135–142, August
- C.-H. Min and A. Tewfik, “Novel pattern detection in children with autism spectrum disorder using iterative subspace identification,” in Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, March 2010, pp. 2266–2269.
- Minnen, T. Starner, J. Ward, P. Lukowicz, and G. Troster, “Recognizing and discovering human actions from on-body sensor data,” in Multimedia and Expo, 2005. ICME 2005. IEEE International Conference on, July 2005, pp. 1545–1548.
- Poldrack, R.A., Schwartz, Y., Ashburner, J., Kennedy, D.N. ( (2012) : Data sharing in neuroimaging research. Frontiers in Neuroinformatics 6, 9
- D., ; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S. (2013). Intrinsic functional network organization in high functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 573.
- Durkin, K., Whitehouse, A., Jaquet, E., Ziatas, K., ; Walker, A. J. (2010). Cell phone use by adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 4: 314-318.
- Hedman, O. Wilder-Smith, M. Goodwin, M.-Z. Poh, R. Fletcherv and R. Picard, “icalm: Measuring electrodermal activity in almost any setting,” in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and Workshops, 2009. ACII 2009. 3rd International Conference on, Sept 2009, pp. 1 2.
- Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y.J., Kim, Y.S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C.,Wang, C. (2012). Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.
- Bertacchini, E. Bilotta, L. Gabriele, D. Olmedo Vizueta, P. Pantano, F. Rosa, A. Tavernise, S. Vena, and A. Valenti, “An emotional learning environment for subjects with autism spectrum disorder,” in Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL), 2013 International Conference on, Sept 2013, pp. 653–659.
- F. Shic, B. Scassellati, D. Lin, and K. Chawarska, “Measuring context: The gaze patterns of children with autism evaluated from the bottom-up,” in Development and Learning, 2007. ICDL 2007. IEEE 6th International Conference on, July 2007, pp. 70–75.
- Noriega, “Self-organizing maps as a model of brain mechanisms potentially linked to autism,” Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 217–226, June 2007.
- G. Rajendran, “Virtual environments and autism: a developmental psychopathological approach,” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 334–347, 2013.
- G. Riva, “Virtual environments in clinical psychology,” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, vol. 40, no. 1-2, pp. 68–76, 2003.
- G. Riva, “Virtual reality in psychotherapy: review,” Cyberpsychology ; Behavior, vol. 8, no. pp. 220–240, 2005.
- Hadjikhani N, Zürcher NR, Rogier O, Hippolyte L, Lemonnier E, Ruest T, et al. Emotional contagion for pain is intact in autism spectrum disorders. Transl Psychiatry. 2014;4:e343.
- Hall JK, Hutton SB, Morgan MJ. Sex differences in scanning faces: does attention to the eyes explain female superiority in facial expression recognition? Cogn Emot. 2010;24:629–37.
- Harris CD, Lindell AK. The influence of autism-like traits on cheek biases for the expression and perception of happiness. Brain Cogn. 2011;77:11–6.
- Higgins ET, Friedman RS, Harlow RE, Idson LC, Ayduk ON, Taylor A. Achievement orientations from subjective histories of success: promotion pride versus prevention pride. Eur J Soc Psychol. 2001;31(1):3-23.
- Higgins ET, Shah J, Friedman R. Emotional responses to goal attainment: strength of regulatory focus as moderator. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997;72(3):515-525.
- Hoekstra RA, Bartels M, Cath DC, Boomsma DI. Factor structure, reliability and criterion validity of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): a study in Dutch population and patient groups. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38:1555–66.
- Saranya and J. Selvakumar, “Implementation of children tracking system on android mobile terminals,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications and Signal Processing (ICCSP ’13), pp. 961–965, April 2013.
- J.-H. Liu, J. Chen, Y.-L. Wu, and P.-L.Wang, “AASMP-Android Application Server for Mobile Platforms,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 16th International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE ’13), pp. 643–650, 2013.
- J.J. and Mostofsky, S.H. (2012). Disruption of functional organization within the primary motor cortex in childrenwith autism. Human Brain Mappang.
- Venkatesan, S. Nelaturu, A. Vullamparthi, and S. Rao, “Hybrid ontology based e – learning expert system for children with autism,” in Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), 2013 International Conference of, March 2013, pp. 93–98.
- K., Stolzner, S. E., Rottenberg, D. E.,,A.W. (2004).Ametaalgorithm for brain extraction inMRI. NeuroImage, 23(2), 625–637.
- Kadak MT, Demirel OF, Yavuz M, Demir T. Recognition of emotional facial expressions and broad autism phenotype in parents of children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2014;55:1146–51.
- Kuhn G, Benson V, Fletcher-Watson S, Kovshoff H, McCormick CA, Kirkby J, et al. Eye movements affirm: automatic overt gaze and arrow cueing for typical adults and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Exp Brain Res. 2010;201:155–65.
- Chukoskie, A. Soomro, J. Townsend, and M. Westerfield, “looking better: Designing an at-home gaze training system for children with asd,” in Neural Engineering (NER), 2013 6th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on, Nov 2013, pp. 1246–1249.
- Lahm, E.A. (1996). Software that engages young children with disabilities. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 11(2): 115-124.
- Lau WY-P, Gau SS-F, Chiu Y-N, Wu Y-Y, Chou W-J, Liu S-K, et al. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34:294 305.
- Lind SE, Williams DM, Bowler DM, Peel A. Episodic memory and episodic future thinking impairments in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: An underlying difficulty with scene construction or self-projection? Neuropsychology. 2014;28:55–67.
- Lord C, Rutter M, Le Contour A. 1994. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 24:659–685.
- Chang, R. Kuo, C.-W. Lyu, and J.-S. Heh, “A situated game for autistic children learning activities of daily living,” in Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning (DIGITEL), 2012 IEEE Fourth International Conference on, March 2012, pp. 217–220.
- Frutos, I. Bustos, B. Zapirain, and A. Zorrilla, “Computer game to learn and enhance speech problems for children with autism,” in Computer Games (CGAMES), 2011 16th International Conference on, July 2011, pp. 209–216.
- Milne, R. Leibbrandt, P. Raghavendra, M. Luerssen, T. Lewis, and D. Powers, “Lesson authoring system for creating interactive activities involving virtual humans the thinking head whiteboard,” in Intelligent Agent (IA), 2013 IEEE Symposium on, April 2013, pp. 13–20.
- M. Rahman, S. Ferdous, and S. Ahmed, “Increasing intelligibility in the speech of the autistic children by an interactive computer game,” in Multimedia (ISM), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, Dec 2010, pp. 383–387.
- Mesibov, G.B., Adams, L.W., Klinger, L.G.,Autism: understanding the disorder. Plenum Press, New York, 2015.p. 45- 101
- M¨uller R, Kleinhans N, Kemmotsu N, Pierce K, Courchesne E. (2003). Abnormal variability and distribution of functional maps in autism: An fMRI study of visuomotor learning. Am J Psychiat. 160:1847–1862.
- M¨uller R, Pierce K, Ambrose JB, Allen G, Courchesne E. (2001). Atypical patterns of cerebral motor activation in autism: A functional magnetic resonance study. Biol Psychiat. 49:665–676.
- Marsh AA, Kozak MN, Wegner DM, Reid ME, Yu HH, Blair RJR. The neural substrates of action identification. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2010;5:392–403.
- Marsh LE, Hamilton AFDC. Dissociation of mirroring and mentalising systems in autism. Neuroimage. 2011;56:1511–9.
- Mazurek, M.O. ; Wenstrup, C. (2012). Television, video game and social media use among children with asd and typically developing siblings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders: 1-14.
- McAleer P, Pollick FE. 2008. Understanding intention from minimal displays of human activity. Behav Res Methods. 40:830–839.
- Moran JM, Wig GS, Adams Jr. RB, Janata P, Kelley WM. 2004. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation. NeuroImage. 21:1055–1060.
- Murdaugh DL, Shinkareva SV, Deshpande HR, Wang J, Pennick MR, Kana RK. 2012. Differential deactivation during mentalizing and classification of autism based on default mode network connectivity. PLoS ONE. 7:1–11.
- Chadil,A. Russameesawang, and P. Keeratiwintakorn, “Realtime tracking management system using GPS, GPRS and Google Earth,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON ’08), vol. 1, pp. 393–396, Krabi,Thailand, May 2008.
- N. Foreman, “Virtual reality in psychology,” Themes in Science and Technology Education, vol. 2, no. 1-2, pp. 225–252, 2009.
- Nation, K. ; Penny, S. (2008). Sensitivity to eye gaze in autism: Is it normal? Is it automatic? Is it social? Development and Psychopathology
- Randolph. N.B., Joel, S.E., Muschelli, J., Barber, A. ; Caffo, B.S Evidence-based practice and Autism in the schools. National Autism Center, (2011) p. 61- 78
- Grynszpan, J.-C. Martin, and J. Nadel, “What influences human computer interaction in autism?” in Development and Learning, 2007. ICDL 2007. IEEE 6th International Conference on, July 2007, pp. 53–58.
- Leijdekkers, V. Gay, and F. Wong, “Capturemyemotion: A mobile app to improve emotion learning for autistic children using sensors,” in Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), 2013 IEEE 26th International Symposium on, June 2013, pp. 381–384.
- P. Marti, L. Giusti, and A. Pollini, “Exploring play styles with a robot companion,” in Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2009. RO-MAN 2009. The 18th IEEE International Symposium on, Sept 2009, pp. 717–722.
- Pelphrey, K. A., Morris, J. P., McCarthy, G., ; Labar, K. S. (2007). Perception of dynamic changes in facial affect and identity in autism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(2), 140–149.
- Pelphrey, K. A., Morris, J. P.,, G. (2005). Neural basis of eye gaze processing deficits in autism. Brain, 128(Pt 5), 1038–1048.
- Philip RCM, Whalley HC, Stanfield AC, Sprengelmeyer R, Santos IM, Young AW, et al. Deficits in facial, body movement and vocal emotional processing in autism spectrum disorders. Psychol Med. 2010;40:1919–29.
- Pula K, Parks CD, Ross CF. Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity. Appetite. 2014; p: 15-22.
- El Kaliouby, A. Teeters, and R. Picard, “An exploratory social emotional prosthetic for autism spectrum disorders,” in Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks, 2006. BSN 2006. International Workshop on, April 2006, pp. 2 pp.–4.
- Rex, D. E., Shattuck, D.W.,Woods, R. P., Narr, K. L., Luders, E., Rehm, Magrelli, B. Noris, P. Jermann, F. Ansermet, F. Hentsch, J. Nadel, and A. Billard, “A wearable camera detects gaze peculiarities during social interactions in young children with pervasive developmental disorders,” Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–1, 2014.
- Scozzari and L. Gamberini, “Virtual reality as a tool for cognitive behavioral therapy: a review,” in Advanced Computational Intelligence Paradigms in Healthcare 6. Virtual Reality in Psychotherapy, Rehabilitation, and Assessment, S. Brahnam and L. C. Jain, Eds., vol. 337 of Studies in Computational Intelligence, pp. 63–108, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2011.
- Shattuck, D. W., ; Leahy, R. M. (2002). BrainSuite: an automated cortical surface identification tool. Medical Image Analysis, 6(2), 129–142.
- Shaw RJ, Bosworth HB, Silva SS, et al. Mobile health messages help sustain recent weight loss. Am J Med. 2013;126(11):1002-1009.
- Sonié S, Kassai B, Pirat E, Masson S, Bain P, Robinson J, et al. French version of screening questionnaire for high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome in adolescent: Autism Spectrum Quotient, Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient. Protocol and questionnaire translation [Version française des questionnaires de. Press Medicale. 2011;40:e181–8.
- Makino and K. Aihara, “Cooperative behavior of agents that model the other and the self in noisy iterated prisoners’ dilemma simulation,” in Development and Learning, 2005. Proceedings., The 4th International Conference on, July 2005, pp. 52–57.
- Wakabayashi A, Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S. Are autistic traits an independent personality dimension? A study of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the NEO-PI-R. Pers Individ Dif. 2006;41:873–83.
- Y. A. N. G. Mei, “Application design and implementation of GPS-GPRS location system vehicle terminals,” Telecommunication Engineering, vol. 3, article 024, 2004.
- Y.-H. Chien, Y.-L. Chu, Y.-X. Zhao, C.-H. Chou, and J.-S. Chiang, “A visualized scenario learning system for children with high functioning autism,” in Consumer Electronics (ISCE), 2013 IEEE 17th International Symposium on, June 2013, pp. 51–52.
- Y.-L. Chu, S. Chang, Y.-X. Zhao, F.-C. Hsu, J.-S. You, and C.-H. Chou, “To develop the mandarin-phonetic-symbol communication for high-functioning autism children,” in Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), 2014 IEEE, April 2014, pp. 17–19.
- Zarghom S, Di Fonzo D, Leung FH. Does socioeconomic status affect patients’ ease of use of a touch-screen (ipad) patient survey? Interact J Med Res. 2013;2(1):e1.
- Zhang W, O’Brien N, Forrest JI, et al. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D) among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40793.
- M. Rahman, S. Naha, P. Roy, I. Ahmed, S. Samrose, M. Rahman, and S. Ahmed, “A-class: A classroom software with the support for diversity in aptitudes of autistic children,” in Computers Informatics (ISCI), 2011 IEEE Symposium on, March 2011, pp. 727–731.
- J. Hashemi, T. Spina, M. Tepper, A. Esler, V. Morellas, N. Papanikolopoulos, and G. Sapiro, “A computer vision approach for the assessment of autism-related behavioral markers,” in Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics (ICDL), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, Nov 2012, pp. 1–7.
- H. Yee, “Mobile technology for children with autism spectrum disorder: Major trends and issues,” in E-Learning, E-Management and E-Services (IS3e), 2012 IEEE Symposium on, Oct 2012, pp. 1–5.
- Fromberg, D. P., ; Bergen, D. (Eds.). (2015). Play from birth to twelve: Contexts perspectives, and meanings (3rd Ed.), New York: Routledge.
Having difficulties with choosing your research topic? The deadlines are pressing and you have no time to handle all your academic assignments?
Get help from experienced and well-trained writers holding a college or a PhD degree! We also offer proofreading and essay writing service. Click the button to proceed!