Common, Uncommon and Specialized Abbreviations

Some Common Abbreviations

abbr. - abbreviation, abbreviatedabr. - abridged, abridgment
acad. - academic, academyadj. - adjective, adjourned, adjustment
adm. - administration, admiraladv. - adverb
agr. / agri. / agric. - agricultural, agricultureanon. - anonymous
app. - appended, appendix, appointedapprox. - approximately
assn. - associationb. - base, bass, bat, battery, bay, book, born, brother
bact. - bacteria, bacteriologybap. - baptized
bib. - Bible, biblicalbibliog. - bibliographer, bibliography, bibliographic
biog. - biographer, biography, biographicalbiol. - biology
bk. - bank, block, bookbkg. - banking
bldg. - buildingblvd. - boulevard
bot. - botanical, botanybp. - bishop
brig. - brigade, brigadierbrig. gen. - brigadier general
bro. - brotherbur. - bureaus
c.a. - chartered accountant, chief accountant, commercial agent, consular agent, controller of accountscal. - calendar, caliber, small calorie
cap. - capital, capitalizecapt. - captain
cath. - cathedralcc / cc. / c.c. - cubic centimeters
cent. - centigrade, centimeter, central, centurycf. -  Latin confer = compare
ch. - chaplain, chapter, check (chess), chief, child, children, Latin chirurgia = surgery, churchchap. - chaplain, chapter
chem. - chemical, chemist, chemistrychm. - chairman, checkmate (chess)
chron. - chronologycir. /circ. - circular, Latin circa = about
cit. - citation, cited, citizenciv. - civil, civilian
clk. - clerkcm / cm. - centimeter(s)
co. - company, countyc.o. / c/o - care of, carried over
c.o.d. - cash on delivery, collect on deliverycol. - collected, collector, college, colonel, colonial, colony, column
colloq. - colloquial, colloquialismcom. - comedy, command, commandant, commerce, commercial, commission(er), committee, commodore, common, communication, community
comdr. - commandercomr. - commissioner
comp. - compiler, compiled bycon. - concerto, consolidated, consul
cond. - conductor, conducted byconf. - conference
cong. - congressconsol. - consolidated
constr. - constructioncont. - containing, contents, continent, continental, continue, continued
cont. / contd. - continuedcorp. - corporal, corporation
cp. - candlepower, comparecpl. - corporal
cr. - credit, creditor, creekcrit. - criticism
ct. - carat, cent, courtcu. - cubic
cwt. - hundredweightd. - dam (pedigrees), date, daughter, day(s), dead, democrat, density, diameter, died
d. - pence, pennydec. - deceased, declaration, declension, declination, decrease, Italian deprescendo = decreasing in loudness (music),
def. - definition, definitedeg. - degree(s)
dep. - department, departure, deposit, depot, deputydept. - department, deputy
der. / deriv. - derivation, derivativediag. - diagram
dial. - dialectdict. - dictionary
dim. - Italian diminuendo = diminishing in loudness (music)dipl. - diplomat, diplomatic
dir. - director, directed bydisc. - discount, discovered
dist. - distinguished, districtdistr. - distribution, distributed by
div. - dividend, division, divorceddm / dm. - decameter, decimeter
do. - Latin ditto = the samedoc. - document
doz. - dozendpt. - department
dr. - debit, debtor, drachma, dramd.t. - delirium tremens, double time
dup. / dupl. - duplicatedwt. - pennyweight
e / e. - erg, errors (Baseball)ea. - each
eccl. / eccles. - ecclesiasticalecol. - ecology
econ. - economic, economics, economyed. - edited, edited by, edition, editor
e.g. -  Latin exempli gratia = for exampleelec. / elect. - electric, electrical, electrician, electricity
elev. - elevationemp. - emperor, empire, empress
e.m.u. - electromagnetic unitenc. - enclosed
ency. / encyc. / encycl. - encyclopediaeng. - engineer, engineering, engraved
entom. / entomol. - entomologist, entomologyesp. - especially
est. - established, estimateet al. - Latin et alibi = and elsewhere,
Latin et alii, et aliae = and others
etc. -  Latin et cetera = and so forthet seq. - Latin et sequens = and the following, Latin et sequentes or seqentia = and those that follow
ex. - examined, exampleexch. - exchange, exchequer
exec. - executive, executorex lib. - Latin ex libris = from the books of
f - Italian forte = loud (music)f. - farad, father, farthing, fathom, feminine, fluid (ounce), folio, following, franc, frequency
fac. / fax - facsimilefed. - federal, federated, federation
fem. - female, feminineff - Italian fortissimo = very loud (music)
ff. / fol. - folios, followingfig. - figure
fin. - financefl. - florin, flourished, fluid
fn. - footnotefr. - fragment, franc, from
ft = feet, footft. - fort
fwd. - foreword, foreword by g / g. / gm - gram
gal / gall. - gallongaz. - gazette, gazetteer
gen. - gender, genera, general, genus geog. - geographer, geographical, geography
geol. - geologic, geologist, geologygeom. - geometric, geometry
gloss. - glossarygov. - governor
govt. - governmentgr - grain(s), gram(s)
gram. - grammar, grammarianhab. corp. - Latin habeas corpus = that you have the body
her. - heraldryhist. - historian, historical, history
hort. - horticultural, horticulturehr - hour(s)
ht. - heightib. / ibid. - Latin ibidem = in the same place
id. - Latin idem = the samei.e. - Latin id est = that is
illus. - illustrator, illustration, illustrated byimp. - imperative, imperial, imports,
Latin imprimatur = let it be printed
in. - inch, inchesinc. - including, income, incorporated
in loc. cit. - Latin in loco citato = in the place citedins. - inches, insurance
inst. - instant, institute, institutionintl. - international
introd. - introduction, introduced byis. - island, isle
jour. - journaljr. - junior
jud. - judicialk. - kilo, kilogram, thousand
kg - kilogram (note: no period after kg)kilo. - kilogram, kilometer
km - kilometer (note: no period after km)kt. - carat
kw - kilowatt (note: no period after kw)l - liter
l, ll - line, lineslab. - laboratory
lang. - languagelat. - latitude
lb - Latin libra = poundl.c. - Latin loco citato = in the place cited
lib. - liberal, library, librarianlieut. / lt. - lieutenant
lit. - literally, literary, literature ltd. - limited
lon. / long. - longitudem. - male, married, meridian, Latin
meridies
= noon, meter, mile, minute, month
mach. - machine, machinistmag. - magazine
maj. - majormas. / masc. - masculine
math. - mathematician, mathematicsmdse. - merchandise
mech. - mechanical, mechanicsmed. - medical, medicine, medieval
mem. / memo - Latin memento = remember, memorandummfg. - manufacturing
mfr. - manufacture, manufacturermg / mg. / mgm - milligram
mgr. - managermi - miles, mill (note: no period after mi)
misc. - miscellaneousml / ml. - milliliter
mm - millimeter(s), Latin millia = thousandsmo. - month(s)
mod. - moderate, modernms. / mss. - manuscript, manuscripts
mt. / mts. - mount, mountain, mountainsmus. - museum, music, musician
n / nn - note, notesn. - noun
narr. - narrator, narrated by natl. - national
nav. - naval, navigationn.b. - Latin nota bene = mark well, take notice
n.d. - no date of publicationneg. - negative
no. - numbernon seq. - Latin non sequitur = it does not follow
n.p. - no place of publication, no publishern. pag. - no page number
obit. - obituaryobj. - object, objective
op. cit. - Latin opere citato = in the work citedorch. - orchestra, orchestrated by
orig. - original, originally oz. - ounce (Italian abbrev. of onza)
p. / pp. - page, pagespar. - paragraph, parallel
pat. /patd. - patent, patentedpct. - percent
p.d. - Latin per diem = by the daypen. - peninsular
perf. - performer, performed byphilos. - philosopher, philosophy
phys. - physical, physician, physicist, physicspl. - plate, plural
ppd. - postpaid, prepaidpref. - preface, preface by
prin. - principal, principleprod. - produced by, producer, production
pro tem. - Latin pro tempore = for the time beingpron. - pronoun, pronunciation
pseud. - pseudonympsych. / psychol. - psychological, psychologist, psychology
pt - pint (note: no period after pt)pt. - part, payment, point, port
pub. / publ. - public, publisher, publication, published bypwt - pennyweight (note: no period after pwt)
q. - quarto, questionqr. - quarter
qt - quart (note: no period after qt)qt. - quiet (slang)
qtd. - quotedques. - question
quot. - quotationr.b.i. / rbi / RBI - run(s) batted in (Baseball)
quot. - quotationrec. - receipt, recipe, record, recorded
ref. - referee, reference, reformedreg. - regent, regiment, region, registered, registrar, regular, regulation
rel. - releaserev. - review, reviewed by, revision, revised, revised by
riv. - riverrpm - revolutions per minute
rps - revolutions per secondrpt. - reprint, reprinted by
s. - saint, second, semi-, shilling, silver, sire, solo, son, soprano, southsc. - scene
sch. - schoolsci. - science, scientific, scientist
sculp / sculp. - sculptor, sculptural, sculpturesec - secant, second(s)
sec. / secy. - secretarysec. / sect. - section
ser. - seriesserg. / sergt. / sgt. - sergeant
[sic.] - thus in the source (exactly as quoted)sing. - singular
sol. - solicitorsp. - special, species, specific, specimen, spelling, spirit
sq. - square, sequencesub. - submarine, substitute, suburb
subj. - subject, subjective, subjunctivesup. - superior, supplement, supply, (Latin supra = above), supreme
supt. - superintendentsurg. - surgeon, surgery
sym. - symbol, symphonysyn. - synonym, synonymous
t. - temperature, tempo, (Latin tempore = in the time of), tenor, tense (grammar), territory, time, ton(s), town, transitive, troy (weight) tbs. / tbsp. - tablespoon
tel. - telegram, telegraph, telephonetemp. - temperature, temporary
terr. - territorytheol. - theologian, theological, theology
topog. - topographical, topographytrans. / tr. - translated by, translation, translator
treas. - treasurer, treasurytrig. / trigon. - trigonometric, trigonometry
tsp. - teaspoontwp. - township
ult. - ultimateuniv. - universal, university
usu. - usuallyuv - ultraviolet (note: no period after uv)
v. - verb, verse, versus, Latin vide = see, voltage, von (German name) var. - variant
vb. - verbvers. - version
vet. - veteran, veterinaryviz. - Latin videlicet = namely
vet. - veteran, veterinaryvol. - volcano, volume
vox. pop. - Latin vox populi = voice of the peoplev.p. - vice president, vice principal
vs. / v. - Latin versus = againstvs. / vss. - verse, verses
v.s. - Latin vide supra = see abovewpm - words per minute
writ. - writer, written bywt - weight (no period after wt)
yd - yard(s)yr - year
zn = zinc 

For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations, please see Section 7.4 in the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

Abbreviations of Degrees

Note: When documenting sources using MLA style, the normal punctuations are omitted for degrees when used in parentheses, tables, works cited, footnotes, endnotes, etc. For example, B.A. is written as BA. Other abbreviations retain the periods if applicable, e.g. acad., bib., misc.

Italics = Latin

BA - Bachelor of ArtsBBA - Bachelor of Business Administration
BS - Bachelor of ScienceDA - Doctor of Arts
EdD - Doctor of EducationJD - Doctor of Law
LLB - Bachelor of Laws (legum baccalaureus)LLD - Doctor of Laws (legum doctor)
LLM - Master of Laws (legum magister)MA - Master of Arts
MBA - Master of Business AdministrationMD - Doctor of Medicine (medicinae doctor)
MS - Master of Science PhD - Doctor of Philosophy

Links to Common, Uncommon, and Specialized Abbreviations

Abbreviations and Acronyms of the U.S. Government.

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- acetylsalicylic acid
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+ 2-acetyloxy benzoic acid.

Acronym Finder. Look up acronyms, abbreviations and their meanings.

Acronym Finder
Acronym or abbreviation to find:

Acronym Search. Your source for acronyms and abbreviations.

Acronym Server. Search for acronyms and for words used in acronyms.

ArgosBiotech: Directory of Abbreviations commonly used in biotechnology, biochemistry and the life sciences.

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Canadian Government Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms.

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Common Abbreviations, Common Symbols, Acronyms for Organizations from Web-based Training Modules funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program.

Common Abbreviations from Opal Music.

Common Abbreviations - Acronyms from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).

Common Abbreviations from U.S. Department of State.

Common Abbreviations and Acronynms from AllEarsNet.com - Deb's Unofficial Walt Disney World Information Guide.

Common Abbreviations in Writing.

Common Abbreviations of Biochemical Terms from Metabolic Pathways of Biochemistry, the online reference of metabolism for students, scientists, and the world.

Common Abbreviations Used in International Narcotics Control Strategy Report.

Common Medical and Biophysical Abbreviations.

Common Proofreading Symbols and Common Proofreading Abbreviations from Capital Community College, Hartford, CT.

EuroDicAutom. Eurodicautom is the European Commissions multilingual term bank. The automatic dictionary was launched in 1964. Entries are classified into 48 subject fields (ranging from medicine to public administration). Languages include Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. A typical entry contains the term itself and its synonyms, together with definitions, explanatory notes, references, etc. At present the term bank contains about 5,500,000 entries (terms and abbreviations), subdivided into more than 800 collections.

HyperWar - World War II on the WorldWideWeb - Abbreviations, Acronyms, Codewords, Terms.

Medical Abbreviations (with links) by Adrian M. Padurean.

Military Abbreviations and Acronyms of the US Armed Forces.

Military Acronyms and Glossaries. Links.

Military Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations.

Organizational Acronyms - mainly for United States.

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