Research, Writing, and Style Guides (MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, CGOS, CBE)

1. Citing Sources - General

Citation Style for Research Papers
B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Library, Long Island University - C.W. Post Campus
Citing sources using APA, Turabian, MLA, Chicago, and AMA styles with colorful examples, literally. Includes examples of Robert Delaney's own style of citing sources.

Documentation Style Handouts in PDF
Writing Center at Armstrong Atlantic State University (AASU), Savannah, GA
Annotated Bibliography, APA, Chicago-Turabian, and MLA Documentation, plus Grammar-Mechanics Handouts and Exercises, Regents' Handouts, Writing Process Handouts, all available in PDF.

Dr. Grammar: Online Documentation Resources
James HiDuke, English professor, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA
Links to Overview sites, MLA sites, APA sites, plus other Writer's resources.

KnightCite: A Project of the Hekman Library
Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI
Free Citation Generator for MLA, APA and Chicago styles.
Site created by Justin Searls, Student Intern, Teaching & Learning Digital Studio, Calvin Information Techonology.

Research and Documentation Online
Bedford/St. Martin's Inc. Publishers, New York and Boston
Finding sources and documenting sources in Humanities (MLA), Social Sciences (APA), History (Chicago), and Sciences (CBE number system from Council of Biology Editors). Glossary of Library and Internet Terms. List of Style Manuals.

Slate: Citation Machine
Online tool that creates MLA and APA citations instantly.
This web tool was created by David Warlick of The Landmark Project on October 29, 2000 and is part of the Landmarks for Schools web site for teachers.

Writing a Bibliography
Staley Library, Millikin University, Decatur, IL
APA Format, MLA Format, and Chicago Style Manual (Guidelines for using the Chicago, or Turabian, style).

2. Citing Electronic Sources

Citing Sources
Saint John Ward Chipman Library, University of New Brunswick, NB
APA Style, MLA Style, Related Resources, Navigating EResearch.

How to Cite Electronic Sources
The Learning Page, Library of Congress, Washington, DC
MLA and Turabian citation examples for Films, Legal Documents and Government Publications, Maps, Photographs, Recorded Sound, Special Presentations, and Texts. Includes links to Citation Guidelines.

3. APA Style (American Psychological Association)

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.

A Guide for Writing Research Papers (APA)
Capital Community College, Hartford, CT.
A guide to writing APA style research papers. (PDF)

APA Documentation
Writing Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
Get a quick orientation to APA, Create APA parenthetical citations, Create an APA reference list, Format a paper using APA guidelines, Format APA headings for a paper, Review APA usage and style guidelines, and Locate other APA resources on the Web.

APA Online Sources
University of Houston Libraries
Examples show the correct format for citing online and print sources in American Psychological Association (APA) style.

APA Research Style Crib Sheet
by Russ Dewey, Georgia Southern University
APA Rules and Reference formats. Excellent summary of rules for APA style - the style of writing specified in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

APA Style Guide 6th Edition
USM Libraries, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS
Examples of APA citations for books, journals, other media, and electronic information.

The Basics of APA Style (requires audio)
From APA Online, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC
A useful tutorial following the 6th Edition of APA's Publication Manual, © 2009.
There are also some useful FAQs.

Understanding Electronic Sources from American Psychological Association (APA)
Excerpted from the new 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Guide for Citing Electronic Information
David and Lorraine Cheng Library, William Patterson University, NJ
Examples of citations in APA style.

Psychology with Style: A Hypertext Writing Guide (APA Style Guide)
(for the 5th edition of the APA Manual) by M. Plonsky, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point, WI
Topics include: Typing, Writing in General, Style Details in General, Abbreviations, Numbers, Citations in the Text, Quotations. Research Reports. Research Reviews. Examples included in Appendices.

Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Updated to 6th Edition)
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab, West Lafayette, IN
Brief summary of APA style documentation. Handling quotations in your text. Your reference list. Examples. A Note on Notes. General APA Format.

Using Principles of APA Style to Cite and Document Sources
online! a reference guide to using internet sources, Bedford/St. Martin's
Using Italics and underlining in APA style, Using hypertext to document sources on the Web, and Breaking URLs in APA style.

4. Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed.

Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide
From the Chicago Manual of Style Online.
Provides examples on writing footnotes, in-text citations, reference-list entries and bibliographical citations for both print and electronic sources using Chicago Style.

Chicago/Turabian Documentation
Writing Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
Get a quick orientation to note systems, Create Chicago/Turabian first references, Create Chicago/Turabian subsequent references, and Create a Chicago/Turabian Works Cited page.

Citing Electronic Information in History Papers
Turabian style by Maurice Crouse
Department of History, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN.

Turabian Citation and Format Style Guide
ISR Information Services and Resources, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA
Introduces the Turabian format and provides examples of citation styles in Portable Document Format (PDF).

Turabian Style: Sample Footnotes and Bibliographic Entries (6th ed.)
Clement C. Maxwell Library, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, MA
Examples showing difference in form and punctuation between Note Entry Form and Bibliography Form.

Uncle Sam - Brief Guide to Citing Government Publication
Government Publications Dept, Regional Depository Library, Univ. of Memphis
Common examples of government document citations based on the Chicago/Turabian style.

Using Chicago Style to Cite and Document Sources
online! a reference guide to using internet sources, Bedford/St. Martin's
Adapting Chicago style to cite Internet sources, Using italics and underlining in Chicago style, and Using hypertext to document sources on the Web.

5. CGOS Style - Columbia Guide to Online Style

The Columbia Guide to Online Style by Janice Walker, Todd Taylor

6. CBE Style - Council of Biology Editors

CBE Documentation
Writing Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
Use the citation-sequence system, Create a CBE citation-sequence reference list, Use the name-year system, and Create a CBE name-year reference list.

Citing Online Media Resources (web sites, online media files, etc.)
Adapted from the Columbia Guide to Online Style, by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor. Citation styles described are Humanities Style.
With examples by Gary Handman, Media Resources Center, Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Using CBE Style to Cite and Document Sources
online! a reference guide to using internet sources, Bedford/St. Martin's
Page briefly describes the citation-sequence and name-year citation systems, with examples on: Using italics and underlining in CBE style, and Using hypertext to document sources on the Web. Site includes a page on Using Other Styles to Cite and Document Sources with reference to ACS Style Guide, ASCE On-Line Authors' Guide, Linguistic Society of America (LSA) Style Sheet, American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, American Institute of Physics (AIP) Style Manual, and others.

7. Harvard Style

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, aka "Harvard Citator" published by Harvard Law Review Association in conjunction with Columbia Law Review, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and Yale Law Journal 18th edition (January 1, 2005)
The Bluebook - A Uniform System of Citation (Spiral-bound), 18th ed. January 1, 2005

Interactive Citation Workbook for The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation and ALWD Citation Manual by Tracy L. McGaugh (Book)

Citation, end references, and bibliographies: A handbook for students, including a description of the Harvard system of reference by C.J. Morgan (Book)

Harvard Style Examples
Monash University Library. Monash is a global university with eight campuses.
Citations for Books, Chapters, Journal articles, Conference Papers, Web pages, Reference list. Includes a Tutorial.

Writing a Bibliography (Harvard System)
Dickson College, Canberra, Australia
Essay Writing, Locating Information - Effective Reading, Selecting Information - Note Taking, Bibliographies, Examples of Bibliographic Entries, Points to Remember, and Textual References or Citations (including Parenthetical Reference examples).

8. MLA Style (Modern Language Association)

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition

Citing Film and Video in slightly adapted version of MLA style - with Examples
Citing TV and Radio - with Examples
by Gary Handman, Media Resources Center, Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Citing Web Sources MLA Style
Vanguard University of Southern California
1998 MLA Web citation style. In-text Citation, Works Cited, Examples of Typical Web Sites, and Citing from Web Site Databases.

Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography in MLA Style
Works Cited, References, Bibliography - What's the Difference?
How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style
How to Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style
First Footnotes and Endnotes - Examples in MLA Style
Parenthetical References - Examples in MLA Style
Footnotes in MLA Style - Sample Page
Endnotes in MLA Style - Sample Page
Parenthetical References in MLA Style - Sample Page
Works Cited in MLA Style - Sample Page
Quoting Passages Using MLA Style
St. Francis Xavier Secondary School Library, Mississauga, ON

What is MLA Style?
Frequently Asked Questions about MLA Style - Including:
Should I use underlining or italics?
How many spaces should I leave after a period or other concluding mark of punctuation?
How do I create the indentation that the MLA shows for a works-cited list?
From Modern Language Association (MLA) handbook

MLA Style Citation Guide
Writing Center, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN.

MLA Documentation
Writing Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
General information about MLA parenthetical citations, Using the MLA abbreviation guidelines, Using the MLA quotation guidelines, Formatting MLA parenthetical citations, Create an MLA Works Cited Page, and Format the MLA Works Cited page. Includes a section on Numbered References.

MLA Online
University of Houston Libraries
Examples show the correct format for citing online sources in Modern Language Association (MLA) style.

MLA Parenthetical Documentation
LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN
How to correctly document different types of sources using MLA Parenthetical Documentation: Author(s) name, Multivolume works, Classic literary works, Special cases.

Using MLA Style to Cite and Document Sources
online! a reference guide to using internet sources, Bedford/St. Martin's
Using principles of MLA style to cite Internet sources, Using italics and underlining in MLA style, Using hypertext to document sources on the Web, and Formatting Works Cited Entries in HTML.

Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab, West Lafayette, IN
Using APA format, Formatting in Sociology, Handling quotations in text, Works Cited list, Footnotes and Endnotes, Paper format.

Writing a Bibliography - MLA Style
Honolulu Community College Library, HI
Links to MLA guides on the Web.

9. Resumé Writing and Cover Letters

Developing Resumes: Selecting a Resume Style from TTG Consultants.
Electronic Resume from Canada Career Consortium.
Ground Rules for an Effective Resume: Resume Do's and Don'ts from TTG Consultants.
How to Write a Masterpiece of a Resume from Rockport Institute Ltd.
How to Write Resume in English from - English as 2nd Language (ESL).
How to Write a Resume Writing Tips, Resume Writing & Distribution Services.
Online Workshops: Resume from Purdue University, Online Writing Lab.
ASCII Resumes: How to Create a Plain-Text Version of Your Resume from - Career Planning.
The Resume as a Sales Tool from TTG Consultants.
Resume AZ. Online resource for resume. Sample resumes: Before (original submission), After (improvement made), with Critique.
The Resume Guide: Master Index of Resume Samples. Resume writing, resume distribution, and resume writing tips.
Resume Tips from Yana Parker.
Resume Writing from Northeastern University, College of Computer Science.
Resume Writing Guide from Susan Ireland Resumes.
Resume Writing Tips, Do’s and Don’ts in Resume Writing from Association of Executive Search Consultants, quoted in Diversity Employment Solutions at
Resumes and Letters: Sample Resumes from Monster Career Center.
Resumes and Resume Samples from JobStar Central.
A Word about "Scanned" Resumes in Databases from TTG Consultants.

Cover Letter Guide from Susan Ireland Resumes.
Cover Letter Help from
Cover Letter Tips and Thank You Letter Tips from
FAQs about Cover Letters by William S. Frank.
Online Workshops: Cover Letter from Purdue University, Online Writing Lab.
Recipe for a Cover Letter & Cover Letters that Cover All Bases from Canada Career Consortium.
Writing Cover Letters: Sample Cover Letters from Monster Career Center.

10. Writing - Grammar Guides

The Elements of Style
Fourth Edition
by William Strunk, Jr.

The Elements of Style, Fourth Edition by William Strunk, Jr
This classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style includes: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words & Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, ... and much more. See details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. online at

The Basic Elements of English Grammar Guide
University of Calgary, AB
Topics covered include list of style guides, formatting checklist, quotations, plagiarism, sample essay, documenting sources using MLA style.

Common Errors in English Usage by Paul Brians
Common Errors in English Usage

Common Errors in English - List of Errors, More Errors,
Other Commonly Misspelled Words, and Non-Errors
By Dr. Paul Brians, Professor of English, Washington State University, Pullman, WA
Based on Common Errors in English Usage: The Book.

The Grammar Zone
Adjectives and Adverbs, Articles, Comparatives and Superlatives, Clauses, Conditionals, Confusing Words, Nouns, Numbers, Prepositions and Conjunctions, Pronouns, and Questions. Site includes Verbs, Idioms, Paragraph Writing, and more.

Guide to Grammar & Writing
Capital Community College, Hartford, CT
Word and Sentence (Sentence Parts, Abbreviations, Punctuation), Paragraph (Sentence Variety, Tense, Pronoun Consistency), Essay & Research Paper (Writing Process), Ask Grammar, Quizzes, FAQ, Search Engines, Peripherals & PowerPoints, and Grammar Poll.

The Online English Grammar
By Anthony Hughes
Free but copyrighted material. Sound files to learn to pronounce alphabet. Table of contents. Alphabetical subject index. Grammar clinic. English language practice pages. (Slow loading).

11. Writing - Proofreading

Common Proofreading Symbols
Plus Common Proofreading Abbreviations and Some Online Aids on Proofreading and Editing.
Capital Community College, Hartford, CT.

The Editing Process
Paradigm Online Writing Assistant.

How to Proofread and Edit Your Writing: A Guide for Student Writers
Writing Resource Center, Bemidji State University, Bemidji, MN
General and Specific Strategies for All Proofreading, Proofreading for Revising or Rewriting, Proofreading for Editing, and more. (PDF)

Steps in Editing (Proofreading) Your Papers
Handouts include:
Proofreading Strategies
Editing and Proofreading Strategies for Revision
Proofreading Your Paper, as well as
Proofreading: The Final Touches.
OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

12. Writing - Research Guides

Brief Writing Guide
University of Arizona, AZ
Sermon on the importance of writing well. The Beginning. The Middle. The End. A Final Checklist. College and University Writing Tips
By Steve Svan, former student of WSB [Wyzsza Szkola Biznesu = Advanced School of Business] National Louis University, Nowy Sacz, Poland
Guide to organized and resourceful assignments, ranging from research papers, essays, and term papers to book reports, admission essays, dissertations, and Ph.D. theses.

Guide on How to Write University Essays, Courseworks, Assignments and Dissertations
by Verena Vaneeva
Contents include: How to write an Essay, Coursework or Report, Marketing or Marketing Communications Campaign, Dissertation, How to define Issue or Argument, Research Methods, Dissertation Structure.

How to Write an A+ Research Paper
St. Francis Xavier Secondary School, Mississauga, ON
Step by step guide on how to write an excellent research paper quickly and successfully.

How to Write a Research Paper
Establish topic, look for sources, take notes, organize ideas, write first draft, use footnotes & endnotes, write bibliography, revise first draft, and proofread final draft.

Library Starter Kit: Solving the Research Puzzle and How to Do Research in the Library
University of California, Santa Cruz, CA
Quick guide on how to start constructing your research paper, Tutorial for using the Web for research, Research help arranged by topic, Citations and references, MLA and APA style guides.

Online Writing Lab
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Tutorial Center for Writers. Online Writing Labs (OWLs), Internet Search Tools, Resources for Writers and Teachers, Purdue Resources, Links to other WWW writing resources.

Preparing and Presenting your Work
By Jan Sellers, University of Kent, OH
Quick tips on note-taking, preparation, structure and use of quotations.

Principles of Composition
Capital Community College, Hartford, CT
The Writing Process (Outlining, Sense of Purpose, Avoiding Plagiarism, Formatting Papers, Deadly Sins Checklist), Structural Considerations (Thesis Statement, Conclusions, Five-Paragraph Essay), Patterns of Composition (Comparison & Contrast, Cause & Effect, Argumentative Essay).

QuickStudy: Library Research Guide
University of Minnesota Libraries, St. Paul/Minneapolis, MN
Learn How to Use the Library: Starting Your Research, Designing a Research Strategy, Find Books, Articles, Web Sites, Facts, Reviews, and More, Evaluating and Citing Sources, and Searching the MLA International Bibliography. Includes an Instructor's Manual for QuickStudy.

Research 101
University of Washington Information Literacy Learning
An interactive online tutorial for students wanting an introduction to research skills. The tutorial covers the basics, including how to select a topic and develop research questions, as well as how to select, search for, find, and evaluate information sources.

Research and Documenting Sources - OWL: Handouts
Purdue University Online Writing Lab
Handouts and exercises on research skills and resources and the writing of research papers.
Produced by Bigchalk Corporation, New York, NY
Large collection of topics, ideas, and assistance for school related research projects.

The Seven Steps of the Research Process
Library Research at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

The St. Martin's Guide to Writing : Short 7th or 2004 edition by Rise B. Axelrod, Charles R. Cooper
The St. Martin's Guide to Writing : Short

The St. Martin's Guide to Writing, 7th ed. See also 6th ed.
Free registration as a student or instructor to use guide. Contents include: Critical Reading Guides. Why writing is important. How writing is learned. Writing activities. Critical thinking, writing, and research strategies. Writing for assessment. Untangling the Web. Online Research. Writer's Links. Instructor's Resources.

A Student's Guide to Research with the WWW
Saint Louis University, MO
Tutorial guide to conducting research on the WWW for first year college students. Anatomy of a Web page. Evaluating Web sources. Web page types. Web search strategies. Citing online sources. Glossary.

Ten Steps to a Research Paper
Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Library, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Guide to assist undergraduates in their research paper assignments from defining a topic, identifying and accessing relevant information, to citing the sources.

Term Paper Research: Getting Started
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
A brief and concise research strategy.

The Writers' Workshop
Department of English, Northern Illinois University.
Students' Resources include Editor's Grammar and Mechanics, Quoting and Quotations, Citing Sources: The MLA Way, and Plagiarism: A MUST read. See also Tutors' Resources, Instructors' Resources, and Visitors' Resources.