A Virtual Library of Useful URLs – Arranged by Dewey Decimal Classification

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500-539 Natural Sciences and Mathematics

101science.com. Science learning center. Topics include: Amateur Radio, Biology, Chemistry, DNA Tutorial, Electronics, Mathematics, Microscopy, Micro-Photos, Photography, Physics, Radio, Astronomy, Robots, Science News, Space-Astronomy, and Transistors.

Access Excellence from The National Health Museum. Site for Health and Bioscience Teachers and Learners. Categories include: What’s New (Science Updates), About Biotech, Classrooms of the 21st Century, Resource Center (Visual Library, Science and Math, Just for Students, Health Headquarters, News, Activities), and more.

BrainPOP.com – Science: How the World Works. Pick a movie to watch. While waiting for the movie to load, play the quiz game. Movie topics include: Atmosphere, Atoms, Batteries, Big Bang, Crystals, Desert, Dinosaurs, Eclipse, Electricity, Food Chain, Fossil Fuels, Gravity, Heat, Hurricanes, Insects, Jupiter, Land Biomes, Light, Magnetism, Moon, Natural Selection, Ozone, Periodic Table, Photosynthesis, Plate Tectonics, Rainbow, Rainforest, Relativity, Rock Cycle, Saturn, Seasons, Solar System, Sound, Sun, Temperature, Thunderstorm, Tornadoes, Tundra, Volcano, Water Cycle, Waves, Wind, and more.

leaf CBC Health and Science News.

Discover. Current and recent issues of Discover magazine, archive, science news, feature story, web picks, ask Discover, brain works, gallery, search the site.

Do-It-Yourself Science from California Science Center with fun science experiments and activities. Visit also the Science Arcade with fun games to test your science skills.

Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Scientific Biography, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. ASTRONOMY includes Atmospheres, Calendars, Solar Systems, Stars, etc.; Search the BIOGRAPHY of a Scientist under Branch of Science, Gender/Minority Status, Historical Periods, Nationality, or Prize Winners; CHEMISTRY includes Chemical Reactions, Geology, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, etc.; MATHEMATICS include Algebra, Calculus, etc.’ and PHYSICS includes Astrophysics, Electromagnetism, Experimental Physics, Mechanics, Optics, States of Matter, Thermodynamics, Wave Motion, etc.

Everyday Mysteries: Fun Science Facts from the Library of Congress. All of the questions presented on this Web site were asked by researchers and answered by librarians from the Library’s Science Reference Services. In addition, you are introduced to the Library of Congress’ rich collections in science and technology.

The Exploratorium. A museum of science, art, and human perception located in San Francisco, CA. Includes over 10,000 Web pages and hundreds of sound and video files. Focus is on investigating science.

Facts Encyclopedia: Science and Technology from refdesk.com. A-Z list of science resources on the Internet.

For Kids Only: Earth Science Enterprise. How NASA studies Air, Natural Hazards, Land, Water, People. Includes NASA Educational Links (Ask the Experts, Activities and Games, Resources) and Teacher Guides.

Internet Public Library: Science and Technology. Selected resources on the natural and physical sciences and their practical applications.

News in Science from Australia. Contents: All Science News, Health & Medical, Environment & Nature, Space & Astronomy, Ancient Worlds, and Innovation & Technology.

Resources for the History of Physics & Allied Fields. Contents: History of Physics, People (Nobel Prizes in Physics, Notable Geophysicists, Contributions of Women, Physicists on the Money (banknote), Albert Einstein, Andrei Sakharov, etc.), History of Astronomy/Space Science/Geophysics, History of Institutions (mainly physics), Photo Archives, General History – General Physics, History of Science Links, History of Science Community, and Archival Resources (U.S., UK, Europe, Russia, Australia).

ScienceDaily. Science Daily Magazine provides news about the latest discoveries and hottest research projects in everything science from astrophysics to zoology. The Breaking News page is updated every 15 minutes. Browse News by Topics. Includes a number of science Encyclopedias.

Science & Nature from BBC. Contents include Animals, Prehistoric Life, Human Body & Mind, Genes, Space, Hot Topics, TV & Radio Follow-up.

Science News for Kids. Categories covered in Article Archive: Agriculture, Animals, Behavior, Chemistry and Materials, Computers, Dinosaurs and Fossils, Earth, Environment, Finding the Past, Food and Nutrition, Human Body, Mathematics, Physics, Plants, Space and Astronomy, Technology and Engineering, Transportation, and Weather.

Science Q & A from New York Times.

Scientific American. Each month, at least two major articles in their entirety are included in the current issue. Each week breaking news stories are tracked and links provided to related sites. Features: Interview (with scientists), Ask the Experts, Bookmarks, Explore! Past issues, Marketplace and more.

Scientific American: Science & Technology Web Awards 2005. 25 favorite sites selected by Scientific American editors. See also archives of best sci/tech sites from 2004, 2003, 2002, and 2001.

Yahooligans Science & Nature. Animals, Computer Science, Physical Sciences, Scientists, The Earth, Weather, etc. Science info for kids.

The Why Files. Science behind the news. Current and archived science stories from biology, environmental science, health, physical science, social science, sports, and technology. Cool science images.

500.2 Physical sciences

PSIgate (Physical Sciences Information Gateway). Site consists of high quality Internet resources for students, researchers and practitioners in the physical sciences. Categories: Astronomy, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Science History and Policy, Materials (e.g. ceramics, composites, glass, metals, non-metals, minerals, gemstones, polymers, rubber and other elastomers), and Physics.

502.8 Microscopes

The Compound Light Microscope: Parts, Magnification, Microscope Usage, Microscope Care, Slide Preparations, Activities, How It Works, Imaging Capabilities, Magnification, History of the Microscope from Southwest Local School District, Harrison, OH.

Dennis Kunkel Microscopy. Scientific Stock Photography Through the Microscope. Image gallery, most wanted bugs, about microscopy.

Electron Microscopy. What are Electron Microscopes? Where did Electron Microscopes Come From? How do Electron Microscopes Work? See also Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) from University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

How Do Microscopes Work? from Spike’s Science Projects.

How does a confocal microscope work? How does a fluorescent microscope work?

How Light Microscopes Work: The Basics, Image Quality, Types of Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy … by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D. – from How Stuff Works.

Canada's Science Magazine for Kids The Microscope: A Bit of History. How It Works. Microscope Facts. From YES Mag: Canada’s Science Magazine for Kids.


503 Science – Encyclopedias, Science – Dictionaries

Online Medical & Science Dictionaries from MedBioWorld containing 25,000 links to journals, associations and databases.
I. General Dictionaries & Reference Tools
II. Medical Glossaries
III. Bioscience Glossaries
IV. Computer Science Glossaries.

507 Science – Experiments, (Scientific experiments)

Reeko’s Mad Scientist Lab. Free science experiments for parents, teachers, and children K-12.

Science Experiments for Kids from A to Z Homes’s Cool Homeschooling. Contents: Astronomy for Kids, Biology Experiments for Kids, Chemistry Experiments for Kids, Earth Science Experiments for Kids, and Physics Experiments for Kids.

Science Experiments You Can Do. Simple experiments include: making a lumia box, chemical volcano, slime, sound experiments, dry ice experiments, laser activities, animation devices, and others.

Science Made Simple. Science Projects for Children, Science Help for Parents: What is static electricity? Why is the sky blue? and other elementary school science projects and experiments.

507.8 Science projects, (Science fair projects), (School science projects), (Science exhibition projects)

Biology Science Fair Project Ideas: Animal Projects from About.com.

Crystal Clear Science Fair Projects. Contents include:

Canada's Science Magazine for Kids image Projects from YES Mag – Canada’s Science Magazine for Kids. Science projects include: Balloon Rockets, Crazy Chemical Pie, Dracula’s Dinner, Leaning Tower of Pasta, Lightning in a Pan, Make Your Own Mummy, Marshmallow Madness, Volcano in a Bottle, and more.

The Science Fair Page. From The Houston Public Library and The Houston Indepedent School District. Site helps students to use the “Big Six” information gathering process to do research for science fair projects. Many helpful links are included even if you are not in Houston, Texas.

Science Fair Projects World. Illustrated Science Fair Ideas for Elementary, Middle & High School Projects. Categories: Biology (currently empty), Chemistry, Physics, Math, Technology, Human Body.

Super Science Fair Projects. Guide to projects, topics, experiments and ideas. Includes a Step-by-Step Outline and links.

The Ultimate Science Fair Resource. Guide for students on how to do science fair projects. Includes: Project Steps, Hints, Scientific Method, Writing Reports, and Display Boards. Resources include: Idea Bank, Idea Board, and links to Science Research of the WWW.

508 Natural history

American Museum of Natural History. Numerous color photographs from research expeditions by scientists from AMNH. Explore show cases, visit fossil halls, mammal halls, biodiversity, bird halls, and other halls. View virtual diorama of Bison & Pronghorn. Includes an extensive search engine.

509.2 Scientists, (Astronomers), (Biologists), (Chemists), (Geologists), (Mathematicians), (Naturalists), (Physicists)

4000 Years of Women in Science Biography Listing in alphabetical order by last names. See also Listing by Century of Birth, and Listing by Discipline.

Biographies. The Scientists.

Eric Weisstein’s World of Scientific Biography. Scientists include: Astronomers, Biochemists, Biologists, Chemists, Engineers, Geneticists, Geologists, Mathematicians, Microbiologists, Physicians, Physicists, Physiologists, and others.

The Faces of Science Gallery.

Famous Physicists and Astronomers. Including: Nicolaus Copernicus, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Michael Faraday, Stephen Hawking, Edwin Powell Hubble, Sir Isaac Newton, Blaise Pascal, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, and others.

Newton’s Castle. Explore this site to learn about Sir Isaac Newton’s discoveries and secret life. Learn about color, optical illusions, observations from nature and fascinating facts about how cars roll up hill and why dogs chase cars. Try this short Quiz – Correct responses and explanations provided after you submit your test answers.

People and Discoveries: A Science Odyssey from PBS. Contents: Frederick Banting (developer of insulin), Christiaan Barnard (pioneering heart-transplant surgeon), Charles Best (co-developer of insulin), Niels Bohr (atomic physicist), Francis Crick (solver of the puzzle of DNA), Alexander Fleming (discoverer of penicillin), Abraham Maslow (theorist of humanistic psychology), Grace Murray Hopper (developer of computer language), Guglielmo Marconi (radio transmission pioneer), J. Robert Oppenheimer (atomic physicist and theoritician of astronomical phenomena), Ivan Pavlov (investigator of animal behavior), and others.

Scientific Identity: A Smithsonian Institution Libraries Digital Collection. Portraits of scientists from the Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology. Browse Alphabetically by Scientists’ Last Names, Select a Specific Scientist, Keyword Search of Scientist Names, or Browse by Research Discipline: Aeronautics – Zoology.

510 Mathematics

AllMath.com. Site provides Math Tools (Flash Cards, Metric Converter), Math Games, Math Reference Pages (Biographies, Glossary, Multiplication Table), Resources, e.g. Career Exploration, Math Humor, Algebra, Calculus, Geometry, Trigonometry, Lesson Plans and Tutorial.

Ask Dr. Math. Have a K-12 math question? A Math Forum Project, Dr. Math is staffed by math students at Swarthmore College. A searchable archive of questions/answers is available by level, topic and summaries.

Biographies of Mathematicians – Full Alphabetical Index. Excellent resources from University of St. Andrews, Scotland. See also Indexes of Biographies – Alphabetical indexes and Chronological indexes (-500 AD to 1957), Female Mathematicians, and a Full Chronological Index.

Calculator Menu from WebCalc covering: Math – Algebra, Geometry, Trig, Statistics, plus Misc. Math (Calculator Alphabet, Factors, Fibonacci Sequence, Fractal Tree, Absolute Value, Divisibility Test, Percent of Change, and Loggarithm).

CuriousMath.com: Math is an attitude. Site contains fun and fascinating math tricks and trivia.

EqWorld – The World of Mathematical Equations. Extensive information on algebraic, ordinary differential, partial differential (mathematical physics), integral, functional, and other mathematical equations. Outlines exact solutions and some methods for solving equations, includes interesting articles, links to math websites, useful handbooks, textbooks, journals, etc. Site contains over 1200 web pages.

Ethnomathematics Digital Library (EDL) – A program of Pacific Resources for Education and learning. A resource network and interactive learning community for ethnomathematics, with emphasis on the indigenous mathematics of the Pacific region. Browse database of over 500 items by subject, geographical area, cultural group, or language.

FreeMathHelp.com. Free math help to students in math subjects: algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, and all other areas of math.

Fun with Figures: Is It Math or Magic? Vedic mathematics articles providing brilliant mental math short cuts that will amaze everyone.

GoMath.com. Contents include: Automated Search for Questions & Solutions, Algebra Solution, Geometry Solution, Interactive Tutorials and Quizzes, plus excellent printable Formula-To-Go Sheet for Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Calculus, e.g. Multiplication Table, Math Symbols (slow loading), Types of Numbers, Names of Big Numbers (American System), Prime Number (up to 1000), Decimal, Binary and Hexadecimal Number Conversion, Area, and lots more.

History of Mathematics. Includes links to Euclid’s Elements, Mathematical Problems of David Hilbert – 23 important mathematical problems, and Chronological List of Mathematicians.

King’s List of On-line Math Activities. Web links compiled by Mrs. DeWitt: Beginning Math Activities, Basic Math Skills, Factors/Multiples, Fractions, Geometry, Graphing, Integers, Logic Puzzles, Mean/Mode/Median, Measurement, Metric, Place Value, Pre-Algebra, Probability, Rounding, Mind Bender Puzzles, Money, Problem Solving, Biographies, Big Chalk’s Online Math Tests, and others.

Math for Everyone. Everyday Math (Figuring a Tip at a Restaurant, Sale Price, Wind Chill Factor Calculator, Count Coins, Lottery Odds Calculator), Personal Finance (Simple Interest Calculator, Compound Interest Calculator, Retirement, Amortization Schedule for Loan), Units Conversion (Length, Mass, Area, Volume, Speed, Power, Temperature Conversion: °F, °C, and K), Math @ Home (Cost of Electricity). Site also includes: General Math, K-8 Math, Algebra, Plots & Geometry, Trig. & Calculus.

Math for Morons Like Us. Learn: Pre-Algebra, Algebra, Geometry, Algebra II, Pre-Calculus, and Calculus. Site includes tutorials, sample problems, and quizzes. Interact section provides interactive resources e.g. Message Board, Formula Database, Quizzes, and Math Links.

Math Guide from High School Ace. Featured Sites include: Equivalent Fractions Game, High School Math Problems, Math A & B Regents Exam Review, Mr. Hoffman’s Math Stuff, and Virtual Math Manipulatives. Online Math Tools include Free Scientific Calculator, and Math Reference Tables. Also covers Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, and Calculus.

Math Study Guides from SparkNotes.

A Mathematical Chronology. Timeline of mathematics. Site provides brief summaries of historical mathematical achievements from about 30000BC when Palaeolithic peoples in central Europe and France record numbers on bones to 2000 when “Mathematical Challenges of the 21st Century” were proposed.

Mathematics Biographies from AllRefer.com.

Millions and Billions and More (Oh My!). Counting from one thousand 10^3 or 1,000, to one vigintillion 10^63 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. Really Big Numbers at MrDowling.com.

SparkNotes: Math Study Guides. Contents: Prealgebra, Algebra I & II, Precalculus, Calculus AB, Calculus BC I & II, Geometry I, II, & III, plus Trigonometry. Includes a Message Board.

A View from the Back of the Envelope is fundamentally about scale. Contents include: Counting by powers of ten, A million dots on one page, How to simplify a number, Why be approximate? Fermi Questions: Rough quantitative estimates, Scaling the universe to your desktop, Your Body Ruler: A User’s Manual and much more. See also Angle Cards – A “business card” for measuring angle and How Big Are Things?

Webmath. Over 100 instant-answer, self-help, math solvers.

510.28 Calculators

See also 530.8 Measurement, … Conversions

Bloomberg.com Currency Calculator, Mortgage Calculator, Retirement Calculator, Lease / Buy Calculator, 401(k) Calculator, Education Cost Calculator, and Emergency Fund Calculator.

Calculator.com. Directories: Agricultural, Automobile, Brewing, Clothing, College, Computing, Converters, Cooking, Design, Distance, Engineering, Finance, Fun, Health, Manufacturing, Numeric, Personal, Photography, Pricing, Scientific, Sports, and Time.

Calculators. A wide variety of calculators from Digital Librarian: a librarian’s choice of the best of the web.

Google Guide: Calculator. Tables listing: Basic Arithmetic and Advanced Math: Operator, Function, Example. Units of Measure and Conversions: Types of Units, Examples. Physical Constants: Long Name, Shorthand Notation, Click the Link for the Approximate Value. Link to Soople’s Calculator / Conversion Page.

Health Calculators from HealthStatus.com. Blood Alcohol Estimator, Body Fat Estimator, Body Mass Index (BMI), Calories Burned Estimator, Daily Energy Expenditure, Frame Size Calculator, Ideal Weight Calculator, Lose One Pound Calculator, Ovulation Estimator, Pregnancy Due Date Estimator, Cost of Smoking Cigarettes Calculator, Target Heart Rate Calculator, and more.

Martindale’s Calculators On-Line Center. Excellent site containing over 19,855 calculators, covering thousands of subject areas. One of the best free sites on the Internet.

The SmartStudent Guide to Financial Aid – Calculators. Tools will help you determine how much money you will need for a college education in the United States.

Statistics Calculators from UCLA Department of Statistics. For advanced students.

WebCalc. Site provides a wide variety of calculators. Math, Science, Financial, Converters, Alternative Energy, Storm Distance, Paint Calculator, BAC – Blood Alcohol Content, Room Size Calculator, World Population, Typing Test, and many more.

World Wide Metric: Conversion Calculators. Excellent instant conversion calculators. Length Conversion Calculator (Millimeters Inches Meter Feet Yards), Weight Conversion Calculator (Kilograms Pounds), Pressure Conversion Calculator (Bar Kg/cm Psi), Volume Conversion Calculator (Liters Fluid Ounces Quarts Gallons), Temperature Conversion Calculator (Celsius Fahrenheit).

510.7808 Microsoft PowerPoint (Computer file)

PowerPoint in the Classroom. Tutorial on how to use PowerPoint, a software tool used to present information in a slide show format. Text, charts, graphs, sound effects and video may be incorporated into presentations. Print version of PowerPoint tutorial available free for non-profit use. Teacher’s Guide included.

PowerPoint FAQ. Answers to questions on how to use PowerPoint: Drawing, Pictures & Other Imported Files, Animation and Slide Show, Sound & Video, Printing, Formatting, Saving, Using, Editing & Opening Presentation Files.

512 Algebra, Number theory, Group theory, (Fibonacci numbers)

Fibonacci (c.1175 – c.1240) – mathematician. The Fibonacci sequence and biography of Leonardo Fibonacci. Includes photo of Fibonacci’s statue in Pisa.

Fibonacci Numbers and the Pascal Triangle. Links selected by Radoslav Jovanovic from Lajkovac (near Belgrade), Serbia, Yugoslavia.

Who was Fibonacci? Full name: Leonardo of Pisa, or Leonardo Pisano in Italian. A brief biographical sketch of Fibonacci, his life, times and mathematical achievements.

513 Roman numerals, Writing of numerals

Arabic Numbers & Roman Numerals. Date Conversion with Roman Calculator & Roman Numerals Test. Enter a number or a Roman numeral to convert between Arabic numbers and Roman numerals, and vice versa.

Roman Numerals from 24 Hour Translations. Instant conversion of Arabic numbers from 1-3899 into Roman numerals, and vice versa.

Roman Numerals and Dates. Here you can do the conversion by hand and understand how and why Roman numerals and dates are as they are. Includes a Roman Numerals Quiz.

513.028 Abacus

The Abacus: The Art of Calculating with Beads. Includes History of the abacus from ancient times, Instructions on how to add, substract, multiply and divide on the Lee abacus, 1946 contest held in Tokyo of The Abacus vs.The Electric Calculator (winner: the abacus), Resources for Teachers, FAQ, and more.

520 Astronomy

Astronomy for Kids! Sky Facts include Lunar Eclipse, Meter Showers, the Planets, Postcards, Puzzles, and Sky Map.

Eyes on the Sky, Feet on the Ground: Hands on Astronomy Activities for Kids. Fully illustrated online astronomy activities with detailed, step-by-step instructions. Contains the complete text and graphics of the book along with related links, an explanation of how to use this book, and email links to the authors. Table of contents: Earth’s Rotation, Earth’s Orbit, Time and Calendars, Maps and Mapping, Solar System, and Moon.

523 Solar system, Asteroids, Planets, Stars, Sun, Meteorites, (Moon), (Solar eclipses), (Lunar eclipses)

Canadians in Space image Mars from CBC News. In Depth: Space: Mars – Planet profile. Includes Canadians in Space.

Mr. Eclipse.com. The Ultimate Resource for Eclipse Photography. Color photos of eclipses of the sun and the moon. Also includes: Solar eclipses and lunar eclipses for beginners, guide to watching eclipses, and links to other eclipse sites.

Planetary Sciences from National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Planetary Fact Sheets on the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Near Earth Object, Mars, Asteroid, Jupiter, Jovian Satellite, Galilean Satellite, Jovian Rings, Saturn, Saturnian Satellite & Rings, Uranus, Uranian Satellite & Rings, Neptune, Neptunian Satellite & Rings, Pluto, Comet, and Chiron.

Solar System Exploration: Planets from NASA. Contents: Our Solar System Overview – Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Earth’s Moon, Mars, Asteroids, Meteoroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Comets, Kuiper Belt, Beyond Our Solar System, and more.

Views of the Solar System. Multimedia adventure. Splendid views of the sun, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and more.

Welcome to the Planets. Collection of images from NASA’s planetary exploration program. Includes: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Small Bodies, Links to Explorers: Mariner 10, Viking 1 & 2, Voyager 1 & 2, Magellan, Galileo, Hubble, Space Shuttle, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, and Cassini, plus a Glossary.

525 Earth

All about Earth. Simple, brightly illustrated, fast facts about planet Earth for young children.

Center for Earth Observation – CEO Data Archive from Yale University. View selected satellite images from North America, South America, Europe, South West Asia, North/Central Asia, South East Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Global Datasets.

Earth Fact Sheet. Bulk parameters, Orbital parameters, Earth Mean Orbital Elements, Terrestrial Magnetosphere, Terrestrial Atmosphere, Images of Earth, Photo Gallery of Earth, Destination: Earth, plus More Earth Science Data from National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC).

Earth facts from One World – Nations Online. Dry facts about Earth, Terre, Erde, Chikyu, Tierra, Terra, Gaia, or Mother Earth, its location, shape, size, weight, age, satellites, orbital data, rotation, velocity, surface, atmosphere, highest point on surface, symbol, map, life, population, continents, plus statistics for top 50 of the world’s most populated cities.

Exploring the Planets: Earth from National Air and Space Museum. Contents: One-page Earth facts, Realms of Earth: atmosphere, lithosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), biosphere (living things), and magnetosphere (magnetic fields), Exploring Earth from orbit, Mission to Planet Earth, plus an Earth Imagery Index covering images of the Earth from NASA.

Google Earth. Free download. A 3D interface to the planet earth. Fly from space to your neighborhood. Type in an address and zoom right in. Minimum computer configuration for download: Windows 2000, or XP. Pentium 3, 500Mhz. 128M RAM. 400MB disk space. Network speed: 128Kbits/sec. 3D-capable video card with 16Mbytes of VRAM. 1024×768, 16-bit High Color screen.

TerraServer – USA. TerraServer-USA Web site is one of the world’s largest online databases, providing free public access to a vast data store of maps and aerial photographs of the United States. The first three fields, Street, City, and State, enable you to search for an address or a place name in the U.S. only. If you want to search for data in Canada or Mexico, click on the Advanced Find button found in the Top section of each page. You can view TerraServer-USA imagery in 3D at the World Wind site below.

World Wind. Developed at NASA Ames Research Center, World Wind lets you zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth. Amazing software provides latitude, longitude and altitude of your chosen location. Free download. Check download requirements of World Wind, e.g. 256 MB of RAM, 3D Graphics Card, 2 GB of disk space, and more.

527 Latitude, Longitude, Nautical astronomy

Astrodienst. Find Geographic Locations with information on their latitudes and longitudes. Enter at least the first few letters of the name of the city (not country) to search for. Answer includes city, province or state, country, latitude and longitude, plus time zone, as well as the exact date and local time where city is located at time of information access, all in relation to Bahji, of course.

Great Circle Calculator. Once you know the Latitude and Longitude of two places (search in Astrodienst above), you can calculate the distance between any two places in the world as the crow flies, i.e. the straight line distance between the two points. Distances are given in both miles and kilometers.

How Far Is It? Search distance FROM one location TO another as the crow flies. Results will show not only the distance (in miles, kilometers, and nautical miles) between the two points, but the longitudes and latitudes of the places as well, plus County, Population, and Elevation if it is a place in the U.S.

Latitude and Longitude. Illustrated explanation by Dr. David P. Stern.

U.S. Gazetteer. Type in the name of a city, borough, or county in the United States and get its location in longitude and lattitude, as well as its population, zip code, and map.

View Above Earth. Enter the latitude and longitude of a place you would like to view, then add the altitude in kilometres to indicate the distance you wish to view it from above the earth. If you don’t know the latitude or longitude of a place, you can choose a city from Cities around the World. You get a better view if you choose a place that is currently in daylight hours rather than at night time.

529 Time, Days, Night, Week, Months, Calendars, Chronology


Click here for more links on Methods for Measuring Time


Calendar Zone. Calendar related information or types of calendars include: Celestial, Cultural (Aztec, Chinese, Islamic, etc.), Daily, Event, Geographic, Historic, Holidays, Interactive, Millennium, Misc., Reference, Reform, Religious, Software, Traditional, Web, Women, and Y2K. Plus Calendar Quotes & Poetry, Century Prayer (1901), New Calendars, and Calzone Recipes.

Calendars through the Ages. Topics covered: Our 7-day week (origin and meaning of names of days of the week), Our year, Calendars (Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Chinese, Mayan, etc.) plus other unusual and interesting subjects relating to time and calendars.

Clocks and Time. Some 400 Web pages of information dealing with clocks and time. Contents include: Museums, Books, Magazines & Journals, Ezines, Newsgroups & Mailing Lists, Buying & Selling, Organizations & Agencies, Clockmaking & Watchmaking, Education Software, Sundials, History, Time Standards & Setting, and more.

Clockworks: From Sundials to the Atomic Second. Measuring Time from Britannica.com. An amazing site. Provides animated illustrations, history, description, other interesting information, and movie (choice of normal speed or rapid speed movie where applicable) of each time measuring device: Sundial, Clepsydra, Astrolabe, Candle Clock, Sandglass, Weight-Driven Clock, Spring-Driven Clock, Pendulum Clock, Quartz Watch, and a Cesium Atomic Clock. Text version available for those unable to access the graphics version (Shockwave required).

Free Printable Calendar Templates Free Printable Calendar Templates. Create free printable calendars that are formatted for Microsoft Word ®.

Free Printable Calendars. Free calendars from Printfree.com. Print monthly or yearly calendars.

Local Times Around the World. Select a continent or region: Africa, America, Antarctica, Asia, Atlantic, Australia, Europe, or Pacific. Choose a country and a location to view details, e.g. Geographical Location: (40° 42′ N, 74° 0′ W), Current Local Time, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), and Local Time Zone.

On Time: An Exhibition at the National Museum of American History. Explores the changing ways Americans have measured, used, and thought about time from 1700 to now. Requires Macromedia Flash 4 and a fast computer.

Printable Calendars. Printable-Calendar.com is a free service that provides unlimited printable calendar templates in two different formats (Word and PDF). Print calendars for 2004, 2005 or 2006, monthly or yearly.

Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Find the Official United States Time. You can set your computer clock to the correct time right now by using the Internet or the telephone.

Time Travel. Everything you always wanted to know about time travel: Time and the Universe, How to build a time machine, Does time exist? Wormholes, The Einstein Connection, Wormhole Engineering, The ultimate proof, and more.

Time Zone Converter. Apart from allowing you to convert time zones in current time, site also allows you to specify a given date and time to convert past or future times. Select a location “From Time Zone” and convert “To Time Zone” of another location.

A Walk through Time. The Evolution of Time Measurement. Topics covered: Ancient Calendars, Early Clocks, Revolution in Timekeeping, The “Atomic Age”, World Time, Scales, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Time Calibration.

World Time – 36 time zones at a glance. See also Countries and Time Zones and Astronomical Background. Available in German and English.

World Time Server.com. Find current time and date anywhere in the world. Search a location by country or by major city.


Get Current Time with World Time Server
World Time Server.comEnter a country or major city:

www.timeanddate.com. Topics covered: Time (World Clock, Search for City, Meeting Planner), Date (Calendar), Counters (countdown to any date of your choice from current date and time), 3rd Millennium, Latest updates.

530 Physics

Albert Einstein and the World Year of Physics 2005 from Arts & Sciences Libraries, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. Links to numerous websites on Albert Einstein (1879-1955) including Albert Einstein Archives, PBS: Einstein Revealed, Einstein A-Z: Einstein Fun Facts.

The Physics Encyclopedia: Physics Internet Resources. Unfortunately, this site is no longer updated.

The Particle Adventure. An award-winning site that allows you to explore the world of fundamental particles and forces and then to investigate the experimental evidence and techniques. Includes links to other physics sites.

Physics Encyclopedia. Links to wide variety of Physics resources.

The Physics Factbook: An Encyclopedia of Scientific Essays edited by Glenn Elert, written by high school students. Topic Index: acceleration, angular-velocity, area, density, electric-current, electric-field, electric-voltage, electrical-resistivity, energy, force, frequency, friction, length, magnetic-field, mass, money, number, power, pressure, refraction, temperature, time, velocity, volume.

Science Guide – Physics from High School Ace. Links to 101 Physics Facts, Regents Physics Exam Review, High School Physics Tutorials, Physics Animations, Units Conversion Calculator.

Physics News. Links to News and Information related to Physics. Includes Past News Headlines.

PhysicsWeb. Web link resources on physics around the world.

SparkNotes: Physics Study Guides. Contents: Vectors, Kinematics, Dynamics, Work, Energy and Power, Linear Momentum, Rotational Motion, Oscillations, Gravitation, Thermodynamics, Magnetic Forces and Fields, Optics, and Special Relativity.

Canadian Association of Physicists What is Physics? from Canadian Association of Physicists (CAP) Education Pages. See also Physics Careers with profiles of real physicists and audio files.

530.8 Measurement, Weights and measures, Metric system, Volume (Cubic content), (Cubic measurement), (Conversions)

AskNumbers.com. Online conversions between different metrics of length, weight, temperature, pressure, energy, frequency and more.

Celsius to Fahrenheit – Temperature Conversion from Celsius to Fahrenheit. How to calculate manually: Multiply the Celsius temperature by 9/5, then add 32°, e.g. Convert 37° C to Fahrenheit: 37 * 9/5 = 333/5 = 66.6, then: 66.6 + 32 = 98.6° F.
Fahrenheit to Celsius – Temperature Conversion from Fahrenheit to Celsius. How to calculate manually: Subtract 32° to adjust for the offset in the Fahrenheit scale. Multiply the result by 5/9, e.g. Convert 98.6° Fahrenheit to Celsius: 98.6 – 32 = 66.6, then: 66.6 * 5/9 = 333/9 = 37° C. Site also provides a mental math method to approximate the Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion, and vice versa.
See also Measurements from AAA Math – Each page has an explanation, interactive practice and challenge games about measurements.

Conversion Maestro. Conversion Tables: Length (feet, meters), Area (square feet, square meters), Mass and Weight (ounces,grams), Liquid Volume (pints, liters), and Temperature (Fahrenheit, Celsius).

Dictionary of Units, FAQ and Other Measures, and Specialist Calculators.

How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement by Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Interactive Units Converter. Measurements available for conversions include: Weight and Mass, Distance and Length, Capacity and Volume, Area, Speed, Temperature, Time, Pressure, Energy and Work, Circular Measure, and Computer Storage. Plus links to other resources on units conversion such as: Yahoo! list of Online Converters, A Dictionary of Units, Conversion & Calculation Center, Online Conversions, and Maribi.Com Conversion Tables.

Martindale’s Calculators On-Line Center contains over 19,000 Calculators, including many Science and Math Calculators.

Measure 4 Measure. A collection of interactive sites that estimates, calculates, evaluates, and translates. The do-it-all-for-you sites are divided into 4 categories: Science/Math, Health, Finance, and A Measure of Everything Else.

Measurement Conversions. View Tables of Unit Conversion Factors with over 800 conversion factors, Temperature Conversion (Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin), and Copper Wire Gauge.

MegaConverter 2. Excellent site for Unit Conversions and Calculations. Quickly convert practically everything related to numbers. Links to other existing conversion sites in chemistry, computer, cooking, currency, dress size, engineering, finance, geology, lighting, maps, master clock, Morse code, oceans, ring size, and even shoe size.

metric conversions . org. Online conversion calculators, conversion tables and metric formulas. Temperature conversions, Celsius conversion, Celcius conversion (and other common misspellings), Celsius to Fahrenheit, Measurement conversions, Converting kilometers to miles, Centimeters to inches, Weight conversions, Acre conversion.

Online Calculators, Conversion Tools, Measurements & Weights. From Western Washington University. Links to Calculation & Conversion Tools (e.g. Cost of Living Comparator, Roman Numeral Conversion Tool & Data Table, Time Zone Converter, Unit Converter, etc.) plus Tide Charts for Washington State, and A Dictionary of Weights, Units & Measures.

OnlineConversion.com. Convert just about anything to anything else. Over 5,000 units, and 50,000 conversions including Length / Distance, Temperature, Speed, Volume, Weight / Mass, Computer (Binary Digit Conversion), Date / Time, Cooking, Angles, Area, Power, Energy, Density, Force, Pressure, Astronomical, Numbers, Finance, Miscellaneous, Fun Stuff, Clothing, Light, Torque, Vicosity, Frequency, Flow Rate, and Acceleration.

Roman Numeral and Date Conversion with Roman Calculator & Roman Numerals Test. Enter a number or a Roman numeral to convert between Arabic numbers and Roman numerals and vice versa.

Roman Numerals and Dates. Here you can do the conversion by hand and understand how and why Roman numerals and dates are as they are. Includes a Roman Numerals Quiz.

Runner’s Web Kilometer / Mile Distance Converter. Widget Distance Converter. Enter miles or kilometers and click on “Calculate” button.

535 Optics, Light

Atmospheric Optics. Light playing on water drops, dust or ice crystals in the atmosphere produces a host of visual spectacles – rainbows, halos, glories, coronas and many more. Includes Links and Resources.

A Brief History of Optics. Timeline from before 300 B.C. to 1900 A.D.

Discovering Light. From ThinkQuest. Contents: Physics of Light (nature & behavior of light), Light in Technology (human use of light), Light in Nature, Light in Culture (use of light in religion, literature, and art), and Interact (index of virtual experiments, demonstrations and labs).

Light & Optics. From Arizona State University. Contents: Light, Reflection and Refraction, Lenses, Mirrors and Prisms, Color and the Spectrum, Optics in Nature, Supplementary Modules (Fresnel Lens, Hologram, Optical Fiber, and Polarizers), and an extensive Glossary.

Optics for Kids. Quick answers to questions about light and optics. Topics include: Light Basics, Controlling Light, Lenses, Magnifying Glass: A simple optical device, White Light and Laser Light, and others.

Science, Optics & You. Excellent site from Florida State University. Activities are designed for students to learn about light, color, and optics. Contents include: Timeline in Optics, Pioneers in Optics, Light and Color, Museum of Microscopy, Optics Resources on the Web, Interactive Java Tutorials, e.g. Optical Illusions, Primary Colors, the amazing Powers of 10, Photo Gallery, Olympus MIC-D Digital Microscope, Teacher Resources, Student Activities, and much more.

538.768 Auroras, (Aurora borealis), (Northern lights)

Aurora Borealis. Images and time lapse movie.

The Aurora Page. Information, links and images about the Northern Lights from Michigan Technological University, Department of Geological/Mining Engineering & Sciences.

Auroras: Paintings in the Sky from Exploratorium. Take a Self-Guided Tour to find out What are auroras? What do they look like? What makes them happen? Where can you see them? Why are they different colors? Includes Aurora links, resources, and a teacher’s page.

Nordlys – Northern Lights. Terminologies: Aurora Borealis – Northern Lights – Nordlys (in Norwegian); Aurora Australis – Southern Lights – Sørlys (in Norwegian); and Aurora Polaris – Polar lights – Polarlys (in Norwegian) meaning both northern and southern lights. Contents: What are Northern Lights? Aurora in science, Realtime Measurements, Auroral Mythology, Aurora in Arts, Travelling to see the aurora – Web links to Norway, Sweden, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Alaska (USA) and Canada, plus the Northern Lights Photo Contest.

539.7 Radioactivity, Atomic theory, (Radioactive substances), (Radiation)

The Discovery of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age by Slowiczek and Peters. See also Radioactivity: Historical Figures: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923), Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Pierre Curie (1859-1906), Marie Curie (1867-1934), and Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937).

Historical Instrumentation Collection from Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Contains color photos and images of over 1000 objects: Atomic Movie Posters, Electrometers, Radiation Warning Signs, Electroscopes, Radioactive Quack Cures, Geiger Mueller Detectors, Radioactive Sources, Health Physics Posters, Reactors, Hiroshima and Trinity, Shoe Fitting Fluoroscope, Ionization Chambers, X-ray and Gas Discharge Tubes, and others.

Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity. Illustrated biography of Marie Curie from Polish Girlhood (1867-1891) to The Radium Institute (1919-1934). She died on July 4, 1934 and was buried twice.

Natural Radioactivity. Fact sheet. See also Radioactivity in Nature.

Radiation and Radioactivity from Idaho State University. Contents: Radiation and Radioactivity, The Atom, Alpha Radiation, Beta Radiation, Gamma Radiation, X-ray Radiation, Properties of Radiation, Half-Life, Measures of Radiation and Radioactivity, Measurement of Radiation, Gas Filled Detector, Measurement of Radiation, Sodium Iodide Detector, plus Glossary, Radiation and Risk, Radiation and Us.

Radioactivity from ThinkQuest. Alpha (α) Decay, Beta (ß)- Decay, ß+ Decay, Electron Capture, Internal Conversion, Gamma Radiation, Half Life, Decay Chains, Biological Effects of Radiation, Units of Radioactivity, plus Quizzes with Answers.

500 General science, Science museums